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Cadmium was discovered simultaneously by Stromeyer and Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate. It occurs as a minor component in most zinc ores and therefore is a byproduct of zinc production. It was used for a long time as a pigment and for corrosion resistant plating on steel while cadmium compounds were used to stabilize plastic. With the exception of its use in nickel-cadmium batteries and cadmium telluride solar panels, the use of cadmium is generally decreasing in its other applications. These declines have been due to competing technologies, cadmium’s toxicity in certain forms and concentration and resulting regulations. Cadmium is used as a barrier to control neutrons in nuclear fission. Cadmium oxide is used in black and white television phosphors and in the blue and green phosphors for color television picture tubes. Cadmium sulfide is used as a photoconductive surface coating for photocopier drums. In PVC, cadmium was used as heat, light, and weathering stabilizers. It is used in many kinds of solder and bearing alloys, due to a low coefficient of friction and fatigue resistance. It is also found in some of the lowest-melting alloys, such as Wood's metal. Helium-cadmium lasers are a common source of blue-ultraviolet laser light. They operate at either 325 or 422 nm and are used in fluorescence microscopes and various laboratory experiments. Cadmium is one of six substances banned by the European Union's Restriction on Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, which bans certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment but allows for certain exemptions and exclusions from the scope of the law.

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Caesium is a soft, silvery white-gray metal that occurs in nature as cesium-133. The natural source yielding the greatest quantity of cesium is the rare mineral pollucite. Cesium is used in industry as a catalyst promoter, boosting the performance of other metal oxides in the capacity and for the hydrogenation of organic compounds.The radioactive isotope caesium-137 has a half-life of about 30 years and is used in medical applications, industrial gauges, and hydrology.

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The carbonate mineral calcite is a calcium carbonate corresponding to the formula CaCO3 and is one of the most widely distributed minerals on the Earth's surface. Calcite crystals are hexagonal-rhombohedral, though actual calcite rhombohedrons are rare as natural crystals. It is used as chemical raw material for glass and ceramic industry.

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Calcium is a alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. It is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology, where movement of the calcium ion Ca2+ into and out of the cytoplasm functions as a signal for many cellular processes. As a major material used in mineralization of bones and shells, calcium is the most abundant metal by mass in many animals. It is uesd as a reducing agent in the extraction of other metals, such as uranium, zirconium, and thorium, as a deoxidizer, desulfurizer, or decarbonizer for various ferrous and nonferrous alloys, and as an alloying agent used in the production of aluminium, beryllium, copper, lead, and magnesium alloys. It is also used in the making of cements and mortars to be used in construction and in the making of cheese, where calcium ions influence the activity of rennin in bringing about the coagulation of milk.

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Chloral is most notable as a building block in the synthesis of DDT.It is also used to form chloroform.It was once widely used sedative and hypnotic substance.

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Decalin, a bicyclic organic compound, is an industrial solvent. A colorless liquid with an aromatic odor, it is used as a solvent for many resins or fuel additive. It is the saturated analog of naphthalene and can be prepared from it by hydrogenation in a fused state in the presence of a catalyst.

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Ashok Chempharma International is one of the eminent manufacturer, suppliers of ethanol, which is also known as ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol having the molecular formula C 2 H 6 O. Our clients can buy ethanol in the form of volatile, flammable, and colorless liquid at the reasonable prices. Ethanol finds uses in alcoholic beverages and drinks.

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