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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a inert diatomic gas at standard conditions. Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates, and cyanides, contain nitrogen. It occurs in all living organisms, and the nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from air into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. It is a constituent element of amino acids and thus of proteins and nucleic acids. It resides in the chemical structure of almost all neurotransmitters, and is a defining component of alkaloids, biological molecules produced by many organisms.

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Octene-1

Octene-1 is an alpha-olefin, meaning that the double bond is located at the alpha (primary) position, endowing this compound with higher reactivity and thus useful chemical properties. Octene-1 is one of the important linear alpha olefins in industry. The primary, even overwhelming, use of 1-octene is as a comonomer in production of polyethylene. High-density polyethylene and linear low-density polyethylene use approximately 2-4% and 8-10% of comonomers, respectively. Another significant use of 1-octene is for production of linear aldehyde via OXO Synthesis (hydroformylation) for later production of the short-chain fatty acid nonanoic acid, a carboxylic acid, by oxidation of an intermediate aldehyde or linear alcohols for plasticizer application by hydrogenation of the aldehyde.

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P-Cresol

P-Cresol is a phenol compound.It is used in phenol-formaldehyde resins,production of lubricating oils and motor fuels.

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Phosgene

Phosgene is a valued industrial reagent and building block in synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds. In low concentrations, its odor resembles freshly cut hay or grass. In addition to its industrial production, small amounts occur naturally from the breakdown and the combustion of organochlorine compounds, such as those used in refrigeration systems.

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Platinum

Platinum is a transition metal. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa. It is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. Because only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, it is a scarce material, and is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity. Being a heavy metal, it leads to health issues upon exposure to its salts, but due to its corrosion resistance it is not toxic as a metal. Some of its compounds, most notably cisplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer.

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Polonium

Polonium is a rare and highly radioactive element, discovered in 1898 by Marie Sklodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie. It has been studied for possible use in heating spacecraft. As it is unstable, all isotopes of polonium are radioactive. 210Po can be used as an atomic heat source to power radioisotope thermoelectric generators via thermoelectric materials. Because of its very high toxicity, polonium can be used as a poison. It is also used to eliminate dust on film.

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