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Rubidium

Rubidium is metallic element of the alkali metal group. German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium in 1861 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy. Its compounds have chemical and electronic applications. It has also been considered for use in a thermoelectric generator using the magnetohydrodynamic principle, where rubidium ions are formed by heat at high temperature and passed through a magnetic field. These conduct electricity and act like an armature of a generator thereby generating an electric current. It is the main component of secondary frequency references to maintain frequency accuracy in cell site transmitters and other electronic transmitting, networking and test equipment. This rubidium standard are often used with GPS to produce a "primary frequency standard" that has greater accuracy and is less expensive than caesium standards. Other potential or current uses of rubidium include a working fluid in vapor turbines, a getter in vacuum tubes and a photocell component.

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SRT-1720

SRT1720 is a selective activator of human SIRT1. It binds to the SIRT1 enzyme-peptide substrate complex at an allosteric site amino-terminal to the catalytic domain and lower the Michaelis constant for acetylated substrates.

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SYLFAT 2

SYLFAT 2 is a tall oil fatty acid with a high fatty acid content and a low content of rosin acids and unsaponifiables.

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Samarium

Samarium was discovered in 1879 by the French chemist Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran and named after the mineral samarskite where it was isolated from. It has no significant biological role and is only slightly toxic. One of the most important applications of samarium is in samarium-cobalt magnets, these magnets are found in small motors, headphones, high-end magnetic pickups for guitars and related musical instruments. Another important application of samarium and its compounds is as catalyst and chemical reagent. In its usual oxidized form, samarium is added to ceramics and glasses where it increases absorption of infrared light. Radioactive samarium-153 is used to kill cancer cells in the treatment of lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Samarium-doped calcium fluoride crystals were used as an active medium in one of the first solid-state lasers designed and constructed by Peter Sorokin and Mirek Stevenson at IBM research labs in early 1961.

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Scandium

Scandium is a transition metal. It was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis, of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia. The main application of scandium by weight is in aluminium-scandium alloys for minor aerospace industry components. Some items of sports equipment, which rely on high performance materials, have been made with scandium-aluminium alloys. It is also used to make high-intensity discharge lamps.

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Selenium

Selenium is a nonmetal, chemically related to sulfur and tellurium, and rarely occurs in its elemental state in nature. It conducts electricity better in the light than in the dark, and is used in photocells. It is found in economic quantities in sulfide ores such as pyrite, partially replacing the sulfur in the ore matrix. The chief commercial uses for selenium today are in glass making and in chemicals and pigments. Uses in electronics, once important, have been supplanted by silicon semiconductor devices. It is used widely in vitamin preparations and other dietary supplements, in small doses. Some livestock feeds are fortified with selenium as well. It is used in the toning of photographic prints. Selenium is a catalyst in many chemical reactions and is widely used in various industrial and laboratory syntheses, especially organoselenium chemistry. It is also widely used in structure determination of proteins and nucleic acids by X-ray crystallography.

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Solvents

Solvents are liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning as a paint thinner, as nail polish removers and glue solvents, in spot removers, in detergents, in perfumes , and nail polish, and in chemical synthesis. The use of inorganic solvents is typically limited to research chemistry and some technological processes.

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Tall Oil

Tall oil is obtained as a by-product of the Kraft process of wood pulp manufacture when pulping mainly coniferous trees. The name originated as an anglicization of the Swedish "tallolja" ("pine oil"). Tall oil is the third largest chemical by-product in a Kraft mill after lignin and hemicellulose; the yield of crude tall oil from the process is in the range of 30 – 50 kg / ton pulp. It may contribute to 1.0 - 1.5 % of the mill's revenue if not used internally. The tall oil rosin finds use as a component of adhesives, rubbers, and inks, and as an emulsifier. The pitch is used as a binder in cement, an adhesive, and an emulsifier for asphalt. TOFA is a low-cost and vegetarian lifestyle-friendly alternative to tallow fatty acids for production of soaps and lubricants. When esterified with pentaerythritol, it is used as a compound of adhesives and oil-based varnishes. Tall oil is also used in oil drills as a component of drilling fluids.

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Tantalum

Tantalum is a rare, hard, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion resistant. It is part of the refractory metals group, which are widely used as minor component in alloys. The chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment and a substitute for platinum, but its main use today is in tantalum capacitors in electronic equipment such as mobile phones, DVD players, video game systems and computers. Tantalum, always together with the chemically similar niobium, occurs in the minerals tantalite, columbite and coltan.

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