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Californium

Californium is a radioactive metallic chemical element. It was first produced in 1950 by bombarding curium with alpha particles at the University of California, Berkeley. The element was named for California and the University of California. Californium-252 has a number of specialized applications as a strong neutron emitter; each microgram of fresh californium produces 139 million neutrons per minute. This property makes californium useful as a neutron startup source for some nuclear reactors and as a portable neutron source for neutron activation analysis to detect trace amounts of elements in samples. Neutrons from californium are employed as a treatment of certain cervical and brain cancers where other radiation therapy is ineffective. Neutron penetration into materials makes californium useful in detection instruments such as fuel rod scanners; neutron radiography of aircraft and weapons components to detect corrosion, bad welds, cracks and trapped moisture; and in portable metal detectors.

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Canola Oil

Canola oil is a key ingredient in many foods. The oil has many non-food uses, and often replaces non-renewable resources in products including industrial lubricants, biofuels, candles, lipsticks, and newspaper inks.

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Caprolactone

Caprolactone is a cyclic ester, a member of the lactone family, with a seven-membered ring. It is produced on a very large scale as a precursor to caprolactam. It is also a monomer used in the manufacture of highly specialised polymers.

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Caprylic Acid

Caprylic acid is the common name for the eight-carbon saturated fatty acid. It is found naturally in the milk of various mammals, and it is a minor constituent of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. It is used commercially in the production of esters used in perfumery and also in the manufacture of dyes. It is also used in the treatment of some bacterial infections. It is an antimicrobial pesticide used as a food contact surface sanitizer in commercial food handling establishments on dairy equipment, food processing equipment, breweries, wineries, and beverage processing plants. It is also used as disinfectant in health care facilities, schools/colleges, animal care/veterinary facilities, industrial facilities, office buildings, recreational facilities, retail and wholesale establishments, livestock premises, restaurants, and hotels/motels. In addition, caprylic acid is used as an algaecide, bactericide, and fungicide in nurseries, greenhouses, garden centers, and interiorscapes on ornamentals.

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Carbazole

Carbazole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. It has a tricyclic structure, consisting of two six-membered benzene ring fused on either side of a five-membered nitrogen-containing ring. The compound's structure is based on the indole structure but in which a second benzene ring is fused onto the five-membered ring at the 2-3 position of indole. It is used in the production of Pigment Violet 23.

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Carbohydrazide

Carbohydrazide is used as an oxygen scavenger in water treatment for boilers. It is an alternative to the hazardous and potentially carcinogenic hydrazine. Carbohydrazide reacts with oxygen to make water and nitrogen and urea. It also passivates metals and reduces metal oxides. It is widely used in the production of drugs, herbicides,rubber, plant growth regulators, and dyestuffs.

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Carbon

Carbon is nonmetallic and tetravalent-making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. The major economic use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil (petroleum). Crude oil is used by the petrochemical industry to produce, amongst others, gasoline and kerosene, through a distillation process, in refineries. Cellulose is a natural, carbon-containing polymer produced by plants in the form of cotton, linen, and hemp. Cellulose is mainly used for maintaining structure in plants. Commercially valuable carbon polymers of animal origin include wool, cashmere and silk. Plastics are made from synthetic carbon polymers, often with oxygen and nitrogen atoms included at regular intervals in the main polymer chain. The raw materials for many of these synthetic substances come from crude oil. It can form alloys with iron, of which the most common is carbon steel. Graphite is combined with clays to form the 'lead' used in pencils used for writing and drawing. It is also used as a lubricant and a pigment, as a molding material in glass manufacture, in electrodes for dry batteries and in electroplating and electroforming, in brushes for electric motors and as a neutron moderator in nuclear reactors. Gem quality diamond is used in jewelry, and Industrial diamonds are used in drilling, cutting and polishing tools for machining metals and stone. Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink, artist's oil paint and water colours, carbon paper, automotive finishes, India ink and laser printer toner. It is also used as a filler in rubber products such as tyres and in plastic compounds. Carbon acts as a macronutrient for the body, and is thus greatly required.

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