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Carbon

Carbon is nonmetallic and tetravalent-making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. The major economic use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil (petroleum). Crude oil is used by the petrochemical industry to produce, amongst others, gasoline and kerosene, through a distillation process, in refineries. Cellulose is a natural, carbon-containing polymer produced by plants in the form of cotton, linen, and hemp. Cellulose is mainly used for maintaining structure in plants. Commercially valuable carbon polymers of animal origin include wool, cashmere and silk. Plastics are made from synthetic carbon polymers, often with oxygen and nitrogen atoms included at regular intervals in the main polymer chain. The raw materials for many of these synthetic substances come from crude oil. It can form alloys with iron, of which the most common is carbon steel. Graphite is combined with clays to form the 'lead' used in pencils used for writing and drawing. It is also used as a lubricant and a pigment, as a molding material in glass manufacture, in electrodes for dry batteries and in electroplating and electroforming, in brushes for electric motors and as a neutron moderator in nuclear reactors. Gem quality diamond is used in jewelry, and Industrial diamonds are used in drilling, cutting and polishing tools for machining metals and stone. Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink, artist's oil paint and water colours, carbon paper, automotive finishes, India ink and laser printer toner. It is also used as a filler in rubber products such as tyres and in plastic compounds. Carbon acts as a macronutrient for the body, and is thus greatly required.

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Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbonatom. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state, as a trace gas at a concentration of 0.039% by volume. It is the most important greenhouse gas produced by human activities, primarily through the combustion offossil fuels. Its concentration in the Earth's atmosphere has risen by more than 30% since the Industrial Revolution.Carbon dioxide is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the chemical industry. It is used in many consumer products that require pressurized gas because it is inexpensive and nonflammable, and because it undergoes a phase transition from gas to liquid at room temperature at an attainable pressure of approximately 60 bar (870 psi, 59 atm), allowing far more carbon dioxide to fit in a given container than otherwise would. Life jackets often contain canisters of pressured carbon dioxide for quick inflation. Aluminum capsules of CO2 are also sold as supplies of compressed gas for airguns, paintball markers, inflating bicycle tires, and for making carbonated water. Rapid vaporization of liquid carbon dioxide is used for blasting in coal mines. High concentrations of carbon dioxide can also be used to kill pests.

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Carbon Disulfide

Carbon disulfide is a colourless, toxic, highly volatile and flammable liquid chemical compound.Volcanic eruptions and marshes releases small amount of carbon disulfide.It is more reactive toward nucleophiles and more easily reduced.It is widely used in the synthesis of organosulfur compounds such as metham sodium.It is also used for an insecticide,solvent for phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, bromine, iodine, fats, resins,rubbers, and manufacture of viscose rayon, cellophane film, carbon tetrachloride.

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Carbon Monoxide

In 1776, the French chemist de Lassone produced carbon monoxide by heating zinc oxide with coke. Carbon Monoxide is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon Monoxide is conveniently produced in the laboratory by the dehydration of formic acid or oxalic acid, for example with sulfuric acid. Carbon Monoxide is present in small amounts in the atmosphere, chiefly as a product of volcanic activity but also from natural and man-made fires. Carbon Monoxide occurs dissolved in molten volcanic rock at high pressures in the Earth's mantle. It is toxic to humans and animals when encountered in higher concentrations, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal biological functions. Carbon Monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond that consists of two covalent bonds as well as one dative covalent bond. It is the simplest oxocarbon, and isoelectronic with the cyanide ion and molecular nitrogen. Carbon monoxide is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds. Carbon Monoxide also binds to other molecules such as myoglobin and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. Carbon Monoxide may have severe adverse effects on the fetus of a pregnant woman. Carbon Monoxide is produced naturally by the human body as a signaling molecule. Carbon Monoxide is a nutrient for methanogenic bacteria,a building-block for acetylcoenzyme A. Carbon Monoxide has an indirect radioactive forcing effect by elevating concentrations of methane and tropospheric ozone through chemical reactions with other atmospheric constituents.

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Carbon Tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride was formerly widely used in fire extinguishers, as a precursor to refrigerants, and as a cleaning agent. It is a colourless liquid with a "sweet" smell that can be detected at low levels. One specialty use of carbon tetrachloride was by stamp collectors to reveal watermarks on the backs of postage stamps without damaging the stamp. Carbon tetrachloride is one of the most potent hepatotoxins, and is widely used in scientific research to evaluate hepatoprotective agents.

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Carbonyldiimidazole

Carbonyldiimidazole is an organic compound. It is often used for the coupling of amino acids for peptide synthesis and as a reagent in organic synthesis.

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Carboxymethyl Starch

Carboxymethyl Starch is an important modified starch with unique properties due to the presence of negatively charged functional group (CH2COO-). Carboxymethyl Starch has a wide range of applications in industries, mostly used for purposes of thickening, stabilization, water preserving, etc. In pharmaceutical industry, CMS, also known as sodium starch glycolate, is commonly used as disintegrant. It is also used in textile industry as thickening agent in textile printing paste and as sizing agent especially for hydrophilic yarn. It is used for fluid-loss control in drilling mud, drill-in, completion and workover fluids,for water preserving in concrete paste and color paste, as adhesive in concrete, sand, and in adhesive layer for wall paper installation, used in such food varieties as jelly, juice, ice cream, canned food, yogurt, butter, bread, noodle for fresh perseverance,used in consumer products, such as laundry, toothpaste; paper Industry, environmental protection, and tobacco.

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Cardanol

Cardanol is a phenol obtained from anacardic acid, the main component of cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL), a byproduct of cashew nut processing. Cardanol finds use in the chemical industry in resins, coatings, frictional materials, and surfactants used as pigment dispersants for water-based inks. It is used to make phenalkamines, which are used as curing agents for the durable epoxy coatings used on concrete floors. The name of the substance is derived by contraction from the genus Anacardium, which includes the cashew tree, Anacardium occidentale. The name of the genus itself is based on the Greek word for heart.

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Cast-Rite

Cast-Rite is specifically formulated for use in high pressure applications using aluminum, magnesium, zinc, and brass casting alloys.

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