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Selectfluor

Selectfluor is a reagent in chemistry that is used as a fluorine donor. It is a derivative of the heterocycle DABCO. Selectfluor reagent is commercially available. It is synthesized by the alkylation of diazabicyclo [2.2.2]octane (DABCO) with dichloromethane, followed by ion exchange with sodium tetrafluoroborate (replacing the chloride counterion for the tetrafluoroborate). Finally, this salt is treated with elemental fluorine and sodium tetrafluoroborate. It is mainly used in the synthesis of organofluorine compounds.Selectfluor reagent also serves as a strong oxidant, a property that is useful in other reactions in organic chemistry.

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Selenium

Selenium is a nonmetal, chemically related to sulfur and tellurium, and rarely occurs in its elemental state in nature. It conducts electricity better in the light than in the dark, and is used in photocells. It is found in economic quantities in sulfide ores such as pyrite, partially replacing the sulfur in the ore matrix. The chief commercial uses for selenium today are in glass making and in chemicals and pigments. Uses in electronics, once important, have been supplanted by silicon semiconductor devices. It is used widely in vitamin preparations and other dietary supplements, in small doses. Some livestock feeds are fortified with selenium as well. It is used in the toning of photographic prints. Selenium is a catalyst in many chemical reactions and is widely used in various industrial and laboratory syntheses, especially organoselenium chemistry. It is also widely used in structure determination of proteins and nucleic acids by X-ray crystallography.

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Selenium Dioxide

Selenium dioxide is one of the most frequently encountered compounds of selenium. It is an important reagent in organic synthesis. It imparts a red colour to glass: it is used in small quantities to counteract the blue colour due to cobalt impurities and so to create colourless glass. In larger quantities, it gives a deep ruby red colour. It is the active ingredient in some cold-blueing solutions. It is also used as a toner in photographic developing.

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Selenous Acid

Selenous acid is the principal oxoacid of selenium. The major use is in changing the color of steel, especially the steel in guns, the so-called "blueing" process which uses selenous acid, copper(II) nitrate, and nitric acid to change the color of the steel from silver-grey to blue-grey. Some older razor blades were also made of blued steel. Another use for selenious acid is the chemical darkening and patination of copper, brass and bronze, producing a rich dark brown color that can be further enhanced with mechanical abrasion.

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Silane

Silane is a colourless, flammable gas with a sharp, repulsive smell. Silane is the silicon analogue of methane. It is used as coupling agents to adhere fibers such as glass fibers and carbon fibers to certain polymer matrices, stabilizing the composite material. Silane can also be used to couple a bio-inert layer on a titanium implant, water repellents, masonry protection, control of graffiti,applying polycrystalline silicon layers on silicon wafers when manufacturing semiconductors, and sealants.Silane is also used in supersonic combustion ramjets to initiate combustion in the compressed air stream.

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Silanol

Silanol is the simplest silicon alcohol, and is a heavy, volatile, colorless, flammable liquid. Silanols are compounds containing silicon atoms to which hydroxyl substituents bond directly. They are similar to alcohols just as silanes are similar to alkanes. Silanols exist not only as chemical compounds but also on the surface of silica. From the viewpoint of organometallic chemistry, silica can be considered as an enormous ligand, and it is used as support for catalysts of many reactions. In chromatography, derivitization of accessible silanol groups in a bonded stationary phase with trimethylsilyl groups is referred to as endcapping.

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Silicione Rubber

Silicone rubber is a rubber-like material composed of silicone—itself a polymer—containing silicon together with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are widely used in industry, and there are multiple formulations. Silicone rubbers are often one- or two-part polymers, and may contain fillers to improve properties or reduce cost. It is generally non-reactive, stable, and resistant to extreme environments and temperatures from −55 °C to +300 °C while still maintaining its useful properties. Due to these properties and its ease of manufacturing and shaping, silicone rubber can be found in a wide variety of products, including: automotive applications; cooking, baking, and food storage products; apparel such as undergarments, sportswear, and footwear; electronics; medical devices and implants; and in home repair and hardware with products such as silicone sealants.

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Silicon

Silicon is the most common metalloid. It has many industrial uses. It is the principal component of most semiconductor devices, most importantly integrated circuits or microchips. It is widely used in semiconductors because it remains a semiconductor at higher temperatures than the semiconductor germanium and because its native oxide is easily grown in a furnace and forms a good semiconductor/dielectric interface. In the form of silica and silicates, silicon forms useful glasses, cements, and ceramics. It is also a constituent of silicones, a class-name for various synthetic plastic substances made of silicon, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, often confused with silicon itself. Silicon is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces of it appear to be required by animals. It is much more important to the metabolism of plants, particularly many grasses, and silicic acid forms the basis of the striking array of protective shells of the microscopic diatoms.

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