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Carbon is nonmetallic and tetravalent-making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. The major economic use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil (petroleum). Crude oil is used by the petrochemical industry to produce, amongst others, gasoline and kerosene, through a distillation process, in refineries. Cellulose is a natural, carbon-containing polymer produced by plants in the form of cotton, linen, and hemp. Cellulose is mainly used for maintaining structure in plants. Commercially valuable carbon polymers of animal origin include wool, cashmere and silk. Plastics are made from synthetic carbon polymers, often with oxygen and nitrogen atoms included at regular intervals in the main polymer chain. The raw materials for many of these synthetic substances come from crude oil. It can form alloys with iron, of which the most common is carbon steel. Graphite is combined with clays to form the 'lead' used in pencils used for writing and drawing. It is also used as a lubricant and a pigment, as a molding material in glass manufacture, in electrodes for dry batteries and in electroplating and electroforming, in brushes for electric motors and as a neutron moderator in nuclear reactors. Gem quality diamond is used in jewelry, and Industrial diamonds are used in drilling, cutting and polishing tools for machining metals and stone. Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink, artist's oil paint and water colours, carbon paper, automotive finishes, India ink and laser printer toner. It is also used as a filler in rubber products such as tyres and in plastic compounds. Carbon acts as a macronutrient for the body, and is thus greatly required.

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Chitin is a long-chain polymer of a N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world. It is the main component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans and insects, the radulas of mollusks and the beaks of cephalopods, including squid and octopuses. Chitin may be compared structurally to the polysaccharide cellulose and functionally to the protein keratin. Chitin has also proven useful for several medical and industrial purposes. It is used as an additive to thicken and stabilize foods and pharmaceuticals. It also acts as a binder in dyes, fabrics, and adhesives. Industrial separation membranes and ion-exchange resins can be made from chitin.

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Cobalt is found naturally only in chemically combined form. It is used in the preparation of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. Cobalt silicate and cobalt(II) aluminate give a distinctive deep blue color to glass, smalt, ceramics, inks, paints and varnishes. Lithium cobalt oxide is widely used in lithium ion battery cathodes. Several cobalt compounds are used in chemical reactions as oxidation catalysts. Other uses of cobalt are in electroplating, owing to its attractive appearance, hardness and resistance to oxidation, and as ground coats for porcelain enamels.

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Indigo is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color. It is the blue often associated with blue jeans.Indigo is among the oldest dyes to be used for textile dyeing and printing. Many Asian countries, such as India, China, Japan, and Southeast Asian nations have used indigo as a dye.It is insoluble in water, alcohol, or ether, but soluble in DMSO, chloroform, nitrobenzene, and concentrated sulfuric acid.Indigo and some of its derivatives are known to be ambipolar organic semiconductors when deposited as thin films by vacuum evaporation.

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Orcein are names for dyes extracted from several species of lichen. Orcinol is extracted from such lichens. It is then converted to orcein by ammonia and air. In traditional dye-making methods, urine was used as the ammonia source.It is red in acidic pH and blue in alkaline pH. It forms dark brown crystals. It is a mixture of phenoxazone derivates - hydroxyorceins, aminoorceins, and aminoorceinimines.

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SR507A is a trifunctional monomer that can be used to enhance hardness, heat and solvent resistance, and electrical properties in polymer systems including polyolefins, epoxies, polyesters, and polyvinyl chloride.

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Aniline is an organic compound. Aniline was first isolated by destructive distillation of indigo by Otto Unverdorben. Aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine. Its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane. Aniline is mainly produced in industry in two steps from benzene. First, benzene is nitrated using a concentrated mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 50 to 60 °C, which gives nitrobenzene. In the second step, the nitrobenzene is hydrogenated, typically at 200–300 °C in presence of various metal catalysts. Aniline reacts with carboxylic acids or more readily with acyl chlorides such as acetyl chloride to give amides. Aniline and its ring-substituted derivatives react with nitrous acid to form diazonium salts. It reacts with nitrobenzene to produce phenazine in the Wohl-Aue reaction.

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Azepane is a heterocycle. It can be used as intermediate for pharmaceuticals , agrochemcials, zeolites, dyes , inks, rubber chemicals, textile chemicals and corrosion inhibitors.

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