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Alcian Blue

Alcian Blue is any member of a family of polyvalent basic dyes. It is used to stain acidic polysaccharides such as glycosaminoglycans in cartilages and other body structures, some types of mucopolysaccharides, sialylated glycocalyx of cells etc. Alcian Blue can be used to quantitate acidic glycans both in microspectrophotometric quantitation in solution or for staining glycoproteins in polyacrylamide gels or on western blots. It is a tetravalent basic (cationic) dye with a copper (Cu2+, coordination 4 of 6, orbital configuration d9 with Jahn-Teller distortion) phthalocyanine nucleus (CuPc) with three or four pendent isothiouronium side chains imparting its bulkiness and positive charges. In order to qualify as an alcian blue family member there has to be at least 2 side chains and the mixtures often have 3 chains in average to qualify as 8G. Alcian Blue has been used as an adhesive to help stick glycol methacrylate sections to glass slides. Alcian Blue has been used as a gelling agent for lubricating fluids likely due to the stacking properties of this macrocylic aromatic compound.

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Alizarin

Alizarin is an organic compound that is historically important as a prominent dye, originally derived from the roots of plants of the madder genus. It is the main ingredient for the manufacture of the madder lake pigments known to painters as Rose madder and Alizarin crimson. Alizarin red is used in a biochemical assay to determine, quantitatively by colorimetry, the presence of calcific deposition by cells of an osteogenic lineage. In clinical practice, it is also used to stain synovial fluid to assess for basic calcium phosphate crystals. In geology, it is used as a stain to indicate the calcium carbonate minerals, calcite and aragonite.

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Allura Red AC Dye

Allura Red AC Dye is a red azo dye. It is used as a food dye and has the E number E129. Allura Red AC was originally introduced in the United States.It has the appearance of a dark red powder. Allura Red AC usually comes as a sodium salt, but can also be used as both calcium and potassium salts. It is soluble in water; in solution, its maximum absorbance lies at about 504 nm.Allura Red AC has fewer health risks associated with it in comparison to other azo dyes.

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