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Malonic Acid

Malonic acid is a dicarboxylic acid. It is used in the manufacture of barbiturates. It is also frequently used as an enolate in Knoevenagel condensations or condensed with acetone to form Meldrum's acid.

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Nitrobenzene is an organic compound. It is produced on a large scale as a precursor to aniline. Although occasionally used as a flavoring or perfume additive, nitrobenzene is highly toxic in large quantities. In the laboratory, it is occasionally used as a solvent, especially for electrophilic reagents. It is also used in shoe and floor polishes, leather dressings, paint solvents, and other materials to mask unpleasant odors. A significant merchant market for nitrobenzene is its use in the production of the analgesic paracetamol. It is also used in Kerr cells, as it has an unusually large Kerr constant.

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Pivalic Acid

Pivalic Acid is used as pesticide, pharmaceutical and dyes intermediate,It is also used for high-grade coating for thermal stability.

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Sodium Amide

Sodium amide is a chemical compound. It is used in the industrial production of indigo, hydrazine, and sodium cyanide. It is the reagent of choice for the drying of ammonia and is also widely used as a strong base in organic chemistry, often in liquid ammonia solution. One of the main advantages to the use of sodamide is that it is an excellent base and rarely serves as a nucleophile.

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Sodium Azide

Sodium azide is an inorganic compound. This colourless azide salt is the gas-forming component in many car airbag systems. It is used for the preparation of other azide compounds. In the laboratory, it is used in organic synthesis to introduce the azide functional group by displacement of halides. Sodium azide is a useful probe reagent, mutagen, and preservative. In hospitals and laboratories, it is a biocide; it is especially important in bulk reagents and stock solutions which may otherwise support bacterial growth where the sodium azide acts as a bacteriostatic by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase in gram-negative bacteria; gram-positive are resistant, a characteristic similar to antibiotic resistance. It is also used in agriculture for pest control.

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Thioflavin T

Thioflavin T is a benzothiazole salt obtained by the methylation of dehydrothiotoluidine with methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The dye is widely used to visualize and quantify the presence of misfolded protein aggregates called amyloid, both in vitro and in vivo.Thioflavin T fluorescence is often used as a diagnostic of amyloid structure, but it is not perfectly specific for amyloid.

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Triflic Acid

Triflic acid is a sulfonic acid. It is one of the strongest acids. It is mainly used in research as a catalyst for esterification. In the laboratory, triflic acid is useful in protonations because the conjugate base of triflic acid is non-nucleophilic. Triflic acid catalyzes the reaction of aromatic compounds with sulfonyl chlorides, probably also via the intermediacy of a mixed anhydride of the sulfonic acid. It promotes other Friedel-Crafts-like reactions including the cracking of alkanes and alkylation of alkenes, which are very important to the petroleum industry. Triflic acid reacts exothermically with alcohols to produce ethers and olefins.

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Zinc Bromide

Zinc Bromide is a inorganic compound. It is used in organic chemistry as a Lewis acid. It is the electrolyte in the zinc bromide battery. In oil and natural gas wells, solutions containing zinc bromide are used to displacing drilling mud when transistioning from the drilling phase to the completion phase or in well workover operations. Zinc bromide solutions can be used as a transparent shield against radiation. Two glass panes filled with a strong aqueous solution of zinc bromide has a very high density, which can then be used as a window on a hot cell. This type of window has the advantage over lead glass in that it will not darken as a result of exposure to radiation. All glass will darken slowly over time due to radiation, however this is especially true in a hot cell, where exceptional levels of radiation are present. The advantage of an aqueous salt solution is that any radiation damage will last less than a millisecond, so the shield will undergo self-repair.

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n-Butylamine is an organic compound. This colourless liquid is one of the four isomeric amines of butane, the others being sec-butylamine, tert-butylamine and isobutylamine. At standard temperature and pressure, n-butylamine is a liquid having the fishy, ammonia-like odor common to amines. The liquid acquires a yellow colour upon storage in air. It is soluble in all organic solvents. This compound is used as an ingredient in the manufacture of pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and emulsifiers. It is also a precursor for the manufacture of N,N'-dibutylthiourea, a rubber vulcanization accelerator, and n-butylbenzenesulfonamide, a plasticizer of nylon.

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tert-Butanol is the simplest tertiary alcohol. It is one of the four isomers of butanol. It is used as a solvent, as a denaturant for ethanol, as an ingredient in paint removers, as an octane booster for gasoline, as an oxygenate gasoline additive, and as an intermediate in the synthesis of other chemical commodities such as MTBE, ETBE, TBHP, other flavors and perfumes.

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