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Agarose

Agarose is a linear polymer with a molecular weight of about 120,000, consisting of alternating D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactopyranose linked by α-(1→3) and β-(1→4) glycosidic bonds. An agarose is a polysaccharide polymer material, generally extracted from seaweed. Agarose is one of the two principal components of agar, and is purified from agar by removing agar's other component, agaropectin. Agarose is frequently used in molecular biology for the separation of large molecules, especially DNA, by electrophoresis. Agarose exhibits the phenomenon of thermal hysteresis in the liquid-to-gel transition. Agarose is a preferred matrix for work with proteins and nucleic acids as it has a broad range of physical, chemical and thermal stability, and its lower degree of chemical complexity also makes it less likely to interact with biomolecules. Agarose is most commonly used as the medium for analytical scale electrophoretic separation in agarose gel electrophoresis. Agarose gel electrophoresis is the routine method for resolving DNA in the laboratory. It can also be used to separate large protein, and it is the preferred matrix for the gel electrophoresis of particles with effective radii larger than 5-10 nm. Agarose gels are cast horizontally in a mold, and when set, usually run horizontally in a submarine mode in buffer. Agarose gel matrix is often used for protein purification, for example, in column-based preparative scale separation as in gel filtration chromatography, affinity chromatography and ion exchange chromatography.

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Aniline

Aniline is an organic compound. Aniline was first isolated by destructive distillation of indigo by Otto Unverdorben. Aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine. Its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane. Aniline is mainly produced in industry in two steps from benzene. First, benzene is nitrated using a concentrated mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 50 to 60 °C, which gives nitrobenzene. In the second step, the nitrobenzene is hydrogenated, typically at 200–300 °C in presence of various metal catalysts. Aniline reacts with carboxylic acids or more readily with acyl chlorides such as acetyl chloride to give amides. Aniline and its ring-substituted derivatives react with nitrous acid to form diazonium salts. It reacts with nitrobenzene to produce phenazine in the Wohl-Aue reaction.

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Benzoin

Benzoin is an organic compound consisting of an ethylene bridge flanked by phenyl groups and with hydroxyl and ketone functional groups.It appears as off-white crystals, with a light camphor odor. Benzoin is synthesized from benzaldehyde in the benzoin condensation.It is a photocatalyst in photopolymerization and photoinitiator.It is the raw material for synthesis of benzil by organic oxidation with nitric acid or oxone.

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Bismuth

Bismuth is the most naturally diamagnetic of all metals. It has classically been considered to be the heaviest naturally-occurring stable element. Bismuth compounds are used in cosmetics, medicines, and in medical procedures. Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal. As the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, alloy uses for bismuth metal, as a replacement for lead, have become an increasing part of bismuth's commercial importance.

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Calcein

Calcein is a fluorescent dye. It is used as a complexometric indicator for titration of calcium ions with EDTA, and for fluorometric determination of calcium.

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Eosin B

Eosins are bromine derivatives of fluorescin, used in dyeing textiles, ink manufacturing, in coloring cosmetics, in coloring gasoline and as a toner. The sodium or potassium salt of eosin, red to rose-colored crystalline powder, is used in biology to stain cells.

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