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Glycine

Glycine is an organic compound. With only two hydrogen atoms as its 'side chain', glycine is the smallest of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins. It is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids in that it is not chiral. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its two hydrogen atom side chain. Glycine is an intermediate in the synthesis of a variety of chemical products. It is used in the manufacture of the herbicide glyphosate. It serves as a buffering agent in antacids, analgesics, antiperspirants, cosmetics, and toiletries. It is also used as an additive in pet food and animal feed. Pharmaceutical grade glycine is produced for some pharmaceutical applications, such as intravenous injections.

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Guanine

Guanine is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine. In DNA, guanine is paired with cytosine. It is a derivative of purine, consisting of a fused pyrimidine-imidazole ring system with conjugated double bonds. Being unsaturated, the bicyclic molecule is planar. The guanine nucleoside is called guanosine. In the cosmetics industry, crystalline guanine is used as an additive to various products, where it provides a pearly iridescent effect. It is also used in metallic paints and simulated pearls and plastics. It provides shimmering luster to eye shadow and nail polish.

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Heptane

Heptane is a straight-chain alkane. It is widely applied in laboratories as a totally non-polar solvent. In the grease spot test, heptane is used to dissolve the oil spot to show the previous presence of organic compounds on a stained paper. Heptane is commercially available as mixed isomers for use in paints and coatings, as the rubber cement solvent "Bestine", the outdoor stove fuel "Powerfuel" by Primus, as pure n-Heptane for research and development and pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a minor component of gasoline.

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Orcinol

Orcinol is a natural phenolic organic compound that occurs in many species of lichens including Rocella tinctoria and Lecanora. It can be formed by fusing extract of aloes with potash. It is used in the production of the dye orcein and as a reagent in some chemical tests for pentoses, such as Bial's Test.

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Pentane

Pentane is an alkane with five carbon atoms. It is one of the primary blowing agents used in the production of polystyrene foam. Because of its low boiling point, low cost, and relative safety, pentane is used as a working medium in geothermal power stations. It is added into some refrigerant blends as well. It is used in the laboratory as solvents and also often used in liquid chromatography.

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Aesculin

Aesculin is a glucoside that naturally occurs in the horse chestnut, California Buckeye and in daphnin. It is used in a microbiology laboratory to aid in the identification of bacterial species.

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Alizarin

Alizarin is an organic compound that is historically important as a prominent dye, originally derived from the roots of plants of the madder genus. It is the main ingredient for the manufacture of the madder lake pigments known to painters as Rose madder and Alizarin crimson. Alizarin red is used in a biochemical assay to determine, quantitatively by colorimetry, the presence of calcific deposition by cells of an osteogenic lineage. In clinical practice, it is also used to stain synovial fluid to assess for basic calcium phosphate crystals. In geology, it is used as a stain to indicate the calcium carbonate minerals, calcite and aragonite.

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Amaranth

Amaranth is a dark red to purple azo dye used as a food dye and to color cosmetics. The name was taken from amaranth grain, a plant distinguished by its red color and edible protein-rich seeds. Amaranth is an anionic dye. It can be applied to natural and synthetic fibers, leather, paper, and phenol-formaldehyde resins. As a food additive it has E number E123. Amaranth usually comes as a trisodium salt. It has the appearance of reddish-brown, dark red to purple water-soluble powder that decomposes at 120 °C without melting. Amaranths water solution has absorption maximum at about 520 nm.

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