Musculoskeletal drugs usd in treating musculoskeletal disorders, muscle pain, tendons, joints

chemical-categories

Nabumetone

Nabumetone is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the arylalkanoic acid family.It is used to treat pain or inflammation caused by arthritis.Nabumetone works by reducing the effects of hormones that cause pain and inflammation.It has been shown to have a slightly lower risk of gastrointestinal side effects than most other non-selective NSAIDs since it is a non-acidic prodrug which is then metabolized to its active 6MNA (6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid) form.

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Tizanidine

Tizanidine is a drug that is used as a muscle relaxant. It is a centrally acting α-2 adrenergic agonist. It is used to treat the spasms, cramping, and tightness of muscles caused by medical problems such as multiple sclerosis, spastic diplegia, back pain, or certain other injuries to the spine or central nervous system. It is also prescribed off-label for migraine headaches, as a sleep aid, and as an anticonvulsant. It is also prescribed for some symptoms of fibromyalgia.

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Valdecoxib

Valdecoxib is classified as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) .It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, dysmenorrhoea and painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms. It is a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor.

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Acacia gum

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Carisoprodol

Carisoprodol is a centrally-acting skeletal muscle relaxant.It is slightly soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform and acetone.It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm.Carisoprodol is a central nervous system depressant that acts as a sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant.It interrupts neuronal communication within the reticular formation and spinal cord, resulting in sedation and alteration in pain perception.

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Flurbiprofen

Flurbiprofen is a member of the phenylalkanoic acid derivative family of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used to treat the inflammation and pain of arthritis.Flurbiprofen tablets are indicated for the acute or long-term symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteorarthritis and anklosing spondylitis. It may also be used to treat pain associated with dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain accompanied by inflammation.It is structually and pharmacologically related to fenoprofen, ibuprofen, and ketoprofen, and has similar pharmacological actions to other prototypica NSAIAs. Flurbiprofen exhibits antiinflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities.

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Chlorzoxazone

Chlorzoxazone a synthetic compound, inhibits antigen-induced bronchospasms and, hence, is used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis.It is used as an ophthalmic solution to treat conjunctivitis and is taken orally to treat systemic mastocytosis and ulcerative colitis.Chlorzoxazone is also a centrally-acting agent for painful musculoskeletal conditions.It inhibits degranulation of mast cells, subsequently preventing the release of histamine and slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A), mediators of type I allergic reactions. Chlorzoxazone also may reduce the release of inflammatory leukotrienes.It may act by inhibiting calcium and potassium influx which would lead to neuronal inhibition and muscle relaxation.

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Methocarbamol

Methocarbamol is a central muscle relaxant used to treat skeletal muscle spasms. It is the carbamate of guaifenesin, but does not produce guaifenesin as a metabolite.It is use as an adjunct to rest, physical therapy, and other measures for the relief of discomforts associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. It is structurally related to guaifenesin. Methocarbamol's exact mechanism of causing skeletal muscle relaxation is unknown. It is thought to work centrally, perhaps by general depressant effects. It has no direct relaxant effects on striated muscle, nerve fibers, or the motor endplate. It will not directly relax contracted skeletal muscles.

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Penicillamine

Penicillamine is a pharmaceutical of the chelator class.It is a chelating agent used in the treatment of Wilson's disease. It is also used to reduce cystine excretion in cystinuria and to treat patients with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis unresponsive to conventional therapy. Penicillamine is used as a form of immunosuppression to treat rheumatoid arthritis. It works by reducing numbers of T-lymphocytes, inhibiting macrophage function, decreasing IL-1, decreasing rheumatoid factor, and preventing collagen from cross-linking. Its use in Wilson's disease, a rare genetic disorder of copper metabolism, relies on its binding to accumulated copper and elimination through urine.

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Tetrabenazine

Tetrabenazine is a drug for the symptomatic treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorder.It blocks uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.It works mainly as a VMAT-inhibitor and as such promotes the early metabolic degradation of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

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