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Apremilast

Apremilast is a novel, orally available PDE4 inhibitor that inhibits spontaneous TNFα production from human rheumatoid synovial membrane cultures, ex-vivo, with similar efficacy to rolipram.

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Arfendazam

Arfendazam is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It is a 1,5-benzodiazepine, with the nitrogen atoms located at positions 1 and 5 of the diazepine ring, and so is most closely related to other 1,5-benzodiazepines such as clobazam. It has sedative and anxiolytic effects similar to those produced by other benzodiazepine derivatives, but is a partial agonist at GABAA receptors, so the sedative effects are relatively mild and it produces muscle relaxant effects only at very high doses. It produces an active metabolite lofendazam, which is thought to be responsible for part of its effects.

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Artemether

Artemether is an antimalarial for the treatment of multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. It is a methyl ether derivative of artemisinin, which is a peroxide lactone isolated from the Chinese antimalarial plant, Artemisia annua. Artemether is highly effective against the blood schizonts of both malarial parasites P. falciparum and P. vivax. It is applied in combination with lumefantrine in clinical treatments of malaria. Artemether has been shown to have significant anticancer and antitumor activities. It is demonstrated that artemether caused strong inhibitory effects on brain glioma growth and angiogenesis in rats. It exhibits a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity, and induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer cell lines, human leukemia HL60 cells, and human pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 and AsPC-1 cells.

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Arzoxifene

Arzoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator. It is a potent estrogen antagonist in mammary and uterine tissue while acting as an estrogen agonist to maintain bone density and lower serum cholesterol. It is a highly effective agent for prevention of mammary cancer induced in the rat by the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea and is significantly more potent than raloxifene in this regard. It is devoid of the uterotrophic effects of tamoxifen, suggesting that, in contrast to tamoxifen, it is unlikely that the clinical use of arzoxifene will increase the risk of developing endometrial carcinoma.

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Astemizole

Astemizole was a second generation antihistamine drug which has a long duration of action. It has been withdrawn from the market in most countries because of rare but potentially fatal side effects. It is an histamine H1-receptor antagonist. It is structurally similar to terfenadine and haloperidol. It has anticholinergic and antipruritic effects.

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Atazanavir

Atazanavir is an antiretroviral drug of the protease inhibitor (PI) class. It is used to treat infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Atazanavir is the first PI approved for once-daily dosing, and also appears to be less likely to cause lipodystrophy and elevated cholesterol as side effects.Atazanavir selectively inhibits the virus-specific processing of viral Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins in HIV-1 infected cells by binding to the active site of HIV-1 protease, thus preventing the formation of mature virions. Atazanavir is not active against HIV-2.

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Atevirdine

Ateviridine is non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been studied for the treatment of HIV.

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Atovaquone

Atovaquone is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of naphthalenes. It is a hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, an analog of ubiquinone, with antipneumocystic activity. It is a medication used to treat or prevent pneumocystis pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, malaria and babesia.

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Atracurium

Atracurium is a nondepolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant. Atracurium can be used most advantageously if muscle twitch response to peripheral nerve stimulation is monitored to assess degree of muscle relaxation.

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Avitriptan

Avitriptan is an anti-migraine drug of the triptan class. It acts as a 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor agonist.

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