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Artemether

Artemether is an antimalarial for the treatment of multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. It is a methyl ether derivative of artemisinin, which is a peroxide lactone isolated from the Chinese antimalarial plant, Artemisia annua. Artemether is highly effective against the blood schizonts of both malarial parasites P. falciparum and P. vivax. It is applied in combination with lumefantrine in clinical treatments of malaria. Artemether has been shown to have significant anticancer and antitumor activities. It is demonstrated that artemether caused strong inhibitory effects on brain glioma growth and angiogenesis in rats. It exhibits a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity, and induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer cell lines, human leukemia HL60 cells, and human pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 and AsPC-1 cells.

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Arzoxifene

Arzoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator. It is a potent estrogen antagonist in mammary and uterine tissue while acting as an estrogen agonist to maintain bone density and lower serum cholesterol. It is a highly effective agent for prevention of mammary cancer induced in the rat by the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea and is significantly more potent than raloxifene in this regard. It is devoid of the uterotrophic effects of tamoxifen, suggesting that, in contrast to tamoxifen, it is unlikely that the clinical use of arzoxifene will increase the risk of developing endometrial carcinoma.

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Astemizole

Astemizole was a second generation antihistamine drug which has a long duration of action. It has been withdrawn from the market in most countries because of rare but potentially fatal side effects. It is an histamine H1-receptor antagonist. It is structurally similar to terfenadine and haloperidol. It has anticholinergic and antipruritic effects.

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Atazanavir

Atazanavir is an antiretroviral drug of the protease inhibitor (PI) class. It is used to treat infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Atazanavir is the first PI approved for once-daily dosing, and also appears to be less likely to cause lipodystrophy and elevated cholesterol as side effects.Atazanavir selectively inhibits the virus-specific processing of viral Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins in HIV-1 infected cells by binding to the active site of HIV-1 protease, thus preventing the formation of mature virions. Atazanavir is not active against HIV-2.

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Atevirdine

Ateviridine is non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been studied for the treatment of HIV.

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Atovaquone

Atovaquone is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of naphthalenes. It is a hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, an analog of ubiquinone, with antipneumocystic activity. It is a medication used to treat or prevent pneumocystis pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, malaria and babesia.

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Atracurium

Atracurium is a nondepolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant. Atracurium can be used most advantageously if muscle twitch response to peripheral nerve stimulation is monitored to assess degree of muscle relaxation.

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Avitriptan

Avitriptan is an anti-migraine drug of the triptan class. It acts as a 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor agonist.

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Azabenzene

Azabenzene is a colorless,highly flammable, weakly alkaline, water-soluble liquid with a distinctive, unpleasant fish-like odor compound. Azabenzene is used as a precursor to agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals and is also an important solvent and reagent. Azabenzene is added to ethanol to make it unsuitable for drinking. It is used in the synthesis of sulfapyridine, antihistaminic drugs tripelennamine andmepyramine, as well as water repellents, bactericides and herbicides.

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Azelastine

Azelastine is a potent, second-generation, selective, histamine antagonist. Azelastine nasal spray is indicated for the local treatment of the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial allergic rhinitis, such as rhinorrhea, sneezing and nasal pruritis in adults and children 5 years of age and older. Azelastine eyes drops are indicated for the local treatment of seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. It is also effective in those patients who previously failed to respond to oral antihistamine therapy. Azelastine alleviates the symptom of nasal congestion to a greater degree than oral anti-histamines, an important observation since this is a particularly bothersome symptom for many rhinitis sufferers, and second-generation anti-histamines have traditionally shown little decongestant activity.

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