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Allopurinol

Allopurinol is a drug used primarily to treat hyperuricemia and its complications, including chronic gout. The primary use of allopurinol is to treat hyperuricemia and its complications. It does not alleviate acute attacks of gout, but is useful in chronic gout to prevent future attacks. Likewise, allopurinol commonly is used as prophylaxis with chemotherapeutic treatments, which can rapidly produce severe hyperuricemia. Other established indications for allopurinol therapy include ischemic reperfusion injury, kidney stones with a uric acid component, and protozoal infections. Because allopurinol is not a uricosuric, it can be used in patients with poor kidney function. A recent study has suggested that allopurinol can help reduce the effects of angina in ischaemic heart disease by reducing the workload on the heart.

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Alnespirone

Alnespirone is a selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist of the azapirone chemical class. It has antidepressant and anxiolytic effects.

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Alprenoxime

Alprenoxime is a beta blocker. It is a prodrug to alprenolol.

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Amarogentin

Amarogentin is a naturally occurring secoiridoid glycoside.It is a phenol carbonic acid ester of sweroside, a substance related to gentiopicrin.It is rich in natural sugar and is beneficial for the pancreas, spleen and kidneys.Its main use is as a digestive tonic and also used in antismoking formulae and tonics.

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Amisulpride

Amisulpride is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat psychosis in schizophrenia and episodes of mania in bipolar disorder. In small doses it is also used to treat depression.

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Amobarbital

Amobarbital is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative. It has sedative-hypnotic properties. It is a white crystalline powder with no odor and a slightly bitter taste. It was first synthesized in Germany in 1923.Amobarbital dependence mimics delirium tremens and may be life-threatening. Amobarbital has been used in a study to inhibit mitochondrial electron transport in the rat heart. It has an LD50 in mice of 212 mg/kg s.c. Amobarbital has been known to decrease the effects of hormonal birth control, sometimes to the point of uselessness.

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Amodiaquine

Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline compound related to chloroquine, used as an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent. It is a histamine N-methyltransferase inhibitor. It has been shown to be more effective than chloroquine in treating CRPF malaria infections and may afford more protection than chloroquine when used as weekly prophylaxis.

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Amphetamine

Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Amphetamine is also used as a performance and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. It is a prescription medication in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine is often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with uncontrolled or heavy use. Amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine neurotransmitters, specifically phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine, both of which are produced within the human body. Amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, and is sometimes prescribed off-label for its past medical indications. Amphetamine is used by some athletes for its psychological and performance-enhancing effects, such as increased stamina and alertness. Amphetamine stimulates the medullary respiratory centers, producing faster and deeper breaths. Amphetamine also induces contraction in the urinary bladder sphincter, the muscle which controls urination, which can result in difficulty urinating; this effect can be useful in treating bed wetting and loss of bladder control. Amphetamine also has a slight analgesic effect and can enhance the pain relieving effects of opiates.

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Anastrozole

Anastrozole is an aromatase-inhibiting drug approved for treatment of breast cancer after surgery, as well as for metastasis in both pre and post-menopausal women. Anastrozole binds reversibly to the aromatase enzyme through competitive inhibition, inhibits the conversion of androgens to estrogens in peripheral tissues (outside the CNS), and a few CNS sites in various regions within the brain. Anastrozole is not readily biodegraded and has a low potential to bioaccumulate. Anastrozole has been tested for reducing estrogens, including estradiol, in men. It can also contribute to increased risk of stroke, heart attack, chronic inflammation, prostate enlargement and prostate cancer. Anastrozole may be used off-label in children with precocious puberty, or children with pubertal gynecomastia.

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Aniline Oil

The largest application of aniline is for the preparation of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The majority of aniline serves this market. Other uses include rubber processing chemicals (9%), herbicides (2%), and dyes and pigments (2%).As additives to rubber, aniline derivatives such as phenylenediamine and diphenylamine, are antioxidants. Illustrative of the drugs prepared from aniline is paracetamol(acetaminophen, Tylenol). The principal use of aniline in the dye industry is as a precursor to indigo, the blue of blue jeans.

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