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Amphetamine

Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Amphetamine is also used as a performance and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. It is a prescription medication in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine is often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with uncontrolled or heavy use. Amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine neurotransmitters, specifically phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine, both of which are produced within the human body. Amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, and is sometimes prescribed off-label for its past medical indications. Amphetamine is used by some athletes for its psychological and performance-enhancing effects, such as increased stamina and alertness. Amphetamine stimulates the medullary respiratory centers, producing faster and deeper breaths. Amphetamine also induces contraction in the urinary bladder sphincter, the muscle which controls urination, which can result in difficulty urinating; this effect can be useful in treating bed wetting and loss of bladder control. Amphetamine also has a slight analgesic effect and can enhance the pain relieving effects of opiates.

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Anastrozole

Anastrozole is an aromatase-inhibiting drug approved for treatment of breast cancer after surgery, as well as for metastasis in both pre and post-menopausal women. Anastrozole binds reversibly to the aromatase enzyme through competitive inhibition, inhibits the conversion of androgens to estrogens in peripheral tissues (outside the CNS), and a few CNS sites in various regions within the brain. Anastrozole is not readily biodegraded and has a low potential to bioaccumulate. Anastrozole has been tested for reducing estrogens, including estradiol, in men. It can also contribute to increased risk of stroke, heart attack, chronic inflammation, prostate enlargement and prostate cancer. Anastrozole may be used off-label in children with precocious puberty, or children with pubertal gynecomastia.

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Aniline Oil

The largest application of aniline is for the preparation of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The majority of aniline serves this market. Other uses include rubber processing chemicals (9%), herbicides (2%), and dyes and pigments (2%).As additives to rubber, aniline derivatives such as phenylenediamine and diphenylamine, are antioxidants. Illustrative of the drugs prepared from aniline is paracetamol(acetaminophen, Tylenol). The principal use of aniline in the dye industry is as a precursor to indigo, the blue of blue jeans.

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Aniseed Oil

Aniseed oil is obtained from the seeds of Pimpinella anisum.It is used in manufacturing of liquors; flavor for candies, cookies, dentifrices. Pharmaceutics aid (flavor).

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Anitrazafen

Anitrazifen is a drug displaying COX-2 inhibitor activity.

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Apomorphine

Apomorphine is a non-selective dopamine agonist which activates both D1-like and D2-like receptors, with some preference for the latter subtypes. It was used with some notable success as a treatment for alcohol and morphine addiction. It is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is a potent emetic and should not be administered without an antiemetic such as domperidone. The emetic properties of apomorphine are exploited in veterinary medicine to induce therapeutic emesis in canines that have recently ingested toxic or foreign substances. It has been reported to be an inhibitor of Beta amyloid fibril formation, and may thus have potential as a therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease. It was also successfully used as an unofficial treatment of heroin addiction. Apomorphine hydrochloride was a therapy used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

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Aquayamycin

Aquayamycin is an anthraquinone. It is an inhibitor of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase.

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Artemisinin

Artemisinin and its derivatives are a group of drugs that possess the most rapid action of all current drugs against falciparum malaria. Treatments containing an artemisinin derivative (artemisinin-combination therapies, ACTs) are now standard treatment worldwide for falciparum malaria. Artemisinin is undergoing early research and testing for the treatment of cancer, Chinese scientists have shown artemisinin has significant anticancer effects against human hepatoma cells.

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Atipamezole

Atipamezole is a synthetic alpha2-adrenergic antagonist, indicated for the reversal of the sedative and analgesic effects of dexmedetomidine and medetomidine in dogs. It has also been researched in humans as a potential anti-Parkinsonian drug.

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Atomoxetine

Atomoxetine is a drug approved for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is sold in the form of the hydrochloride salt of atomoxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.

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