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Levorphanol is an opioid medication used to treat severe pain. It is the laevorotary stereoisomer of the synthetic morphinan (Dromoran) and a pure opioid agonist, first described in Germany in 1948 as an orally active morphine-like analgesic. It has the same properties as morphine with respect to the potential for habituation, tolerance, physical dependence and withdrawal syndrome. It is 4 to 8 times as potent as morphine and has a longer half-life. It has affinity to μ, κ, and δ opioid receptors, but lacks complete cross-tolerance with morphine. The duration of action is generally long compared to other comparable analgesics, and varies from 4 hours to as much as 15 hours. For this reason levorphanol is useful in palliation of chronic pain and similar conditions. Its NMDA actions, similar to those of the phenylheptylamine open-chain narcotics such as methadone and ketobemidone, make levorphanol useful for types of pain that other analgesics may not be as effective against; levorphanol's sigma receptor, SNRI properties make it even more useful particularly for neuropathic pain.


Lifitegrast is an FDA approved drug indicated for the treatment of signs and symptoms of dry eye, a syndrome called keratoconjunctivitis sicca.Lifitegrast inhibits an integrin, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), from binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). This mechanism down-regulates inflammation mediated by T lymphocytes.


Liraglutide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog that has been developed by Novo Nordisk for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.Victoza lowers blood sugar by stimulating the pancreas to secrete insulin, effectively helping the body use insulin more efficiently when blood sugar levels are elevated.

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Lofepramine is a third generation tricyclic antidepressant which was introduced in 1983 for the treatment of depressive disorders. It is partially converted to its active metabolite desipramine in vivo. However, it is unlikely this property plays a substantial role in its overall effects as lofepramine exhibits lower toxicity and anticholinergic side effects relative to desipramine while retaining equivalent antidepressant efficacy.


Lomevactone is a psychostimulant and antidepressant drug which was synthesized and studied in the 1980s, but was never marketed.


Lopirazepam is a short-acting benzodiazepine analog of the pyridodiazepine type with anxiolytic and hypnotic properties. It has never been marketed.


Loreclezole is a sedative and an anticonvulsant which acts as a GABA agonist. It binds allosterically to the GABAA receptor. The binding site of loreclezole has been shown experimentally to be shared by valerenic acid, an extract of the root of the valerian plant.


Lortalamine is an antidepressant which was synthesized in the early 1980s. It acts as a potent and highly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. It was under development for clinical use but was shelved, likely due to the finding that it produced ocular toxicity in animals. It has been used to label the norepinephrine transporter in positron emission tomography studies.


Lumiracoxib is a COX-2 selective inhibitor non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, manufactured by Novartis. It has several distinctive features. Its structure is different from that of other COX-2 inhibitors, such as celecoxib. It is an analogue of diclofenac, making it a member of the arylalkanoic acid class of NSAIDs. It binds to a different site on the COX-2 receptor than do other COX-2 inhibitors. It is the only acidic coxib and has the highest COX-2 selectivity of any NSAID. Since its original approval, lumiracoxib has been withdrawn from the market in several countries, mostly due to hepatotoxicity concerns. It has never been approved for use in the United States.

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Mebendazole is a benzimidazole drug. It is used to treat infestations by worms including pinworms, roundworms, tapeworms, hookworms, and whipworms.

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