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Hydrocortisone

Hydrocortisone is a steroid hormone, or glucocorticoid, produced by the adrenal gland. It is released in response to stress and a low level of blood glucocorticoids. Its primary functions are to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, suppress the immune system, and aid in fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism.Hydrocortisone counteracts insulin, contributes to hyperglycemia-causing hepatic gluconeogenesis and inhibits the peripheral utilization of glucose (insulin resistance) by decreasing the translocation of glucose transporters (especially GLUT4) to the cell membrane,stimulates gastric-acid secretion.It acts as a diuretic hormone, controlling one-half of intestinal diuresis.It reduces bone formation, favoring long-term development of osteoporosis. It transports potassium out of cells in exchange for an equal number of sodium ions,increases blood pressure by increasing the sensitivity of the vasculature to epinephrine and norepinephrine,inhibits secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone.

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Hydrofluoric Acid

Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a valued source of fluorine, being the precursor to numerous pharmaceuticals such as fluoxetine and diverse materials such as polytetrafluoroethylene. It is a highly corrosive acid, capable of dissolving many materials, especially oxides. The principal use of hydrofluoric acid is in organofluorine chemistry. Most high-volume inorganic fluoride compounds are prepared from hydrofluoric acid. The ability of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve metal oxides is the basis of several applications. It removes oxide impurities from stainless steel, a process called pickling, and silicon wafers in the semiconductor industry. In similar manner, it is also used to etch glass. A 5% to 9% hydrofluoric acid gel is also commonly used to etch all ceramic dental restorations to improve bonding. For similar reasons, dilute hydrofluoric acid is a component of household rust stain remover and in car washes in "wheel cleaner" compounds. Diluted hydrofluoric acid is used in the petroleum industry in a mixture with other acids in order to stimulate the production of water, oil, and gas wells specifically where sandstone is involved.

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Hydromorphinol

Hydromorphinol is an opiate analogue that is a derivative of morphine, where the 14-position has been hydroxylated and the 7,8- double bond saturated. It has similar effects to morphine such as sedation, analgesia and respiratory depression, but is more potent and has a steeper dose-response curve and longer half-life. It is used in medicine as the bitartrate salt and hydrochloride. It was developed in Austria in 1932.

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Hydromorphone

Hydromorphone is a potent centrally-acting analgesic drug of the opioid class. It is a derivative of morphine, to be specific, a hydrogenated ketone thereof and, therefore, a semi-synthetic drug. It is, in medical terms, an opioid analgesic and, in legal terms, a narcotic. It is used in medicine as an alternative to morphine for analgesia, and as a second- or third-line narcotic antitussive for cases of dry, painful, paroxysmal coughing resulting from continuing bronchial irritation after influenza and other ailments, inhalation of fungus, and other causes. In general, it is considered the strongest of the antitussive drugs, and was developed shortly after diacetylmorphine.

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Hydrotalcite

Hydrotalcite is used in antacid medicine for gastric and duodenal ulcers, chronic gastritis compete, anti-reflux esophagitis influencing, used as a filler for plastics.

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Hydroxyacetonitrile

Hydroxyacetonitrile is a odorless colorless oil with a sweetish taste. Used in the manufacture of intermediates in pharmaceutical production, as a component of synthetic resins, as a chemical intermediate for organic compounds, and as a solvent it is used to produce glycin, creatine, indigo dye, intermediate of glyphosate (pesticide).

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Hydroxychloroquine

Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial drug also used to reduce inflammation in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.

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Hydroxylamine Sulfate

Hydroxylamine sulfate is the sulfuric acid salt of hydroxylamine. It is used in organic synthesis to convert aldehydes and ketones to oximes, carboxylic acids and their derivatives to hydroxamic acids, isocyanates to N-hydroxyureas and nitriles to amidoximes. It is also used to generate hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid from oleum or chlorosulfuric acid. It is used in the production of anti-skinning agents, pharmaceuticals, rubber, textiles, plastics and detergents. It is a starting material for some insecticides, herbicides and growth regulators. It is used in photography as a stabiliser for colour developers and as an additive in photographic emulsions in colour film.

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Hydroxylamine-o-Sulfonic Acid

Synthetic reagent for pharmaceutical, agro and fine chemical applications.

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Hydroxylammonium Chloride

Hydroxylammonium chloride is the hydrochloric acid salt of hydroxylamine. It is a biological intermediate in the nitrification and in the anammox which are important in the nitrogen cycle in soil and in wastewater treatment. It is used in organic synthesis for preparation of oximes and hydroxamic acids from carboxylic acids, N- and O- substituted hydroxyamines, and addition reactions of carbon-carbon double bond. In surface treatments, it is used in the preparation of anti-skinning agents, corrosion inhibitors, and cleaner additives. It is also a starting material for pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals manufacturing. In the rubber and plastics industries, it is an antioxidant, vulcanization accelerator, and radical scavenger. It is also used as a fixative for textile dyes, auxiliary in some dyeing processes, as a metal extraction and flotation aid, as an antioxidant in fatty acids and soaps, and as a color stabilizer and emulsion additive in color films.

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