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Oxiconazole is an antifungal medication typically administered in a cream or lotion to treat skin infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch and ringworm. It can also be prescribed to treat a skin rash known as Tinea versicolor, caused by systemic yeast overgrowth.

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Oxilorphan is an opioid antagonist from the morphinan family of drugs. It is a non-selective opioid which is a μ antagonist but a κ partial agonist. It has similar effects to naloxone, and around the same potency as an antagonist. It has some weak partial agonist effects and can produce hallucinogenic effects at high doses, suggesting some kappa opioid agonist action. It was trialled for the treatment of opiate addiction, but was not developed commercially.

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Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug of the racetam family. Oxiracetam is a much less studied drug that is more aggressive in onset and effect then Aniracetam. Oxiracetam is a possible cognitive enhancer. It is safe in most models, however extremely high dosing of this drug in mice over prolonged periods caused loss of bladder control in one study. Oxiracetam is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with a bioavailability of 68-82%.

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Oxolamine is a cough suppressant.

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Oxybutynin is an anticholinergic medication used to relieve urinary and bladder difficulties, including frequent urination and inability to control urination, by decreasing muscle spasms of the bladder. It competitively antagonizes the M1, M2, and M3 subtypes of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

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Oxyclozanide is a salicylanilide anthelmintic. It is used in the treatment and control of Fascioliasis in ruminants mainly domestic animals like cattle, sheep and goats. It mainly acts by uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in flukes.

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Oxygen is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, and is a highly reactive nonmetallic period 2 element that readily forms compounds with almost all other elements. It was independently discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, and Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774, but Priestley is often given priority because his work was published first. The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion. Uptake of oxygen from the air is the essential purpose of respiration, so oxygen supplementation is used in medicine. Treatment not only increases oxygen levels in the patient's blood, but has the secondary effect of decreasing resistance to blood flow in many types of diseased lungs, easing work load on the heart. Oxygen therapy is used to treat emphysema, pneumonia, some heart disorders, some disorders that cause increased pulmonary artery pressure, and any disease that impairs the body's ability to take up and use gaseous oxygen. Other uses of oxygen include the production of steel, plastics and textiles, rocket propellant, and life support in aircraft, submarines, spaceflight and diving.

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Oxymatrine is used in the treatment of cervical cancer, gastric cancer, liver and gallbladder,antibacterial anti-inflammatory drugs.

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Oxymetazoline was developed from xylometazoline at E.Merck Darmstadt by Fruhstorfer in 1961. It is used to treat epistaxis and eye redness due to minor irritation.

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Oxymorphazone is an opioid analgesic drug related to oxymorphone. It is a potent and long acting μ-opioid agonist which binds irreversibly to the receptor, forming a covalent bond which prevents it from detaching once bound. This gives it an unusual pharmacological profile, and while oxymorphazone is only around half the potency of oxymorphone, with higher doses the analgesic effect becomes extremely long lasting, with a duration of up to 48 hours. However with repeated doses, tolerance to the effects develops rapidly, as chronically activated opioid receptors are rapidly internalised by β-arrestins, in a similar manner as occurs with non-covalent binding by agonists with extremely high binding affinity such as lofentanil.

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