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4-Ethyl Guaiacol

4-Ethylguaiacol, abbreviated to 4-EG, is a phenolic compound with the molecular formula C9H12O2. It is produced along with 4-ethylphenol (4-EP) in wine and beer by the spoilage yeast Brettanomyces. When it is produced by the yeast to concentrations greater than the sensory threshold of >600 µg/L, it can contribute bacon, spice, clove, or smoky aromas to the wine. On their own these characters can be quite attractive in a wine, however as the compound usually occurs with 4-EP whose aromas can be more aggressing, the presence of the compound often signifies a wine fault. Interestingly the stoichiometric ratio in which 4-EP and 4-EG are present can greatly affected the organoleptic properties of the wine.

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4-Fluorococaine

4'-Fluorococaine is a tropane derivative drug which is a synthetic analogue of cocaine. It has only around the same potency as cocaine as an inhibitor of dopamine reuptake, but conversely it is a much stronger serotonin reuptake inhibitor than cocaine, resulting in a significantly altered pharmacological profile in animal studies.

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4-Fluoromethamphetamine

4-Fluoromethamphetamine is a stimulant drug related to methamphetamine and 4-fluoroamphetamine.It has been reported to be sold on the illicit market as a controlled substance analogue.

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4-Hydroxy Isoleucine

4-Hydroxy Isoleucine is an amino acid derivative that assists the pancreas in production of insulin.It plays a valuable role in insulin-promotion and glucose regulation.It also stimulates insulin secretion, thereby limiting the extent to which blood glucose (the glycemic index) is elevated.

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4-Hydroxy-But-2-Enoic Acid

4-Hydroxy-But-2-Enoic Acid is a drug used in scientific research. It is structurally related to GHB and binds to the GHB receptor with 4-fold higher affinity than GHB itself.It may also be naturally produced in the mammalian CNS and is suspected to be an endogenous ligand for the GHB receptor.

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4-Hydroxycoumarin

4-Hydroxycoumarins are a class of vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant drug molecules derived from coumarin by adding a hydroxy group at the 4 position to obtain 4-hydroxycoumarin, then adding a large aromatic substituent at the 3-position. The large 3-position substituent is required for anticoagulant activity.

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4-Hydroxyisoleucine

4-Hydroxyisoleucine is an non-protein amino acid derivative that assists the pancreas in production of insulin.It has a direct, stimulating effect on insulin production and reducing overall blood glucose levels.It is used as a treatment for type II diabetes.

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