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Aniline

Aniline is an organic compound. Aniline was first isolated by destructive distillation of indigo by Otto Unverdorben. Aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine. Its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane. Aniline is mainly produced in industry in two steps from benzene. First, benzene is nitrated using a concentrated mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 50 to 60 °C, which gives nitrobenzene. In the second step, the nitrobenzene is hydrogenated, typically at 200–300 °C in presence of various metal catalysts. Aniline reacts with carboxylic acids or more readily with acyl chlorides such as acetyl chloride to give amides. Aniline and its ring-substituted derivatives react with nitrous acid to form diazonium salts. It reacts with nitrobenzene to produce phenazine in the Wohl-Aue reaction.

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Arctiin

Arctiin is a lignan found in many plants of the Asteraceae family. It is the glucoside of arctigenin. Arctiin and arctigenin have shown anticancer effects.

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Arnolol

Arnolol is a beta blocker.

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Arsenic

Arsenic is a metalloid. It occurs in many minerals, usually in conjunction with sulfur and metals, and also as a pure elemental crystal. It was first documented by Albertus Magnus in 1250. The main use of metallic arsenic is for strengthening alloys of copper and especially lead. It is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the most common semiconductor in use after doped silicon. Arsenic and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides. These applications are declining, however, as many of these compounds are being phased out. Arsenic poisoning from naturally occurring arsenic compounds in drinking water remains a problem in many parts of the world. During the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, a number of arsenic compounds have been used as medicines, including arsphenamine and arsenic trioxide. Arsphenamine as well as neosalvarsan was indicated for syphilis and trypanosomiasis, but has been superseded by modern antibiotics. Arsenic trioxide has been used in a variety of ways over the past 500 years, but most commonly in the treatment of cancer. Arsenic is also used in bronzing and pyrotechnics and for taxonomic sample preservation.

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Aspirin

Aspirin is a salicylate drug, often used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication. It also has an antiplatelet effect by inhibiting the production of thromboxane, which under normal circumstances binds platelet molecules together to create a patch over damage of the walls within blood vessels. Because the platelet patch can become too large and also block blood flow, locally and downstream, aspirin is also used long-term, at low doses, to help prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clot formation in people at high risk for developing blood clots. It has also been established that low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of cardiac tissue. The main undesirable side effects of aspirin are gastrointestinal ulcers, stomach bleeding, and tinnitus, especially in higher doses. In children and adolescents, aspirin is no longer used to control flu-like symptoms or the symptoms of chickenpox or other viral illnesses, because of the risk of Reye's syndrome.

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Azepane

Azepane is a heterocycle. It can be used as intermediate for pharmaceuticals , agrochemcials, zeolites, dyes , inks, rubber chemicals, textile chemicals and corrosion inhibitors.

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Bilobol

Bilobol's natural source is Gingko biloba fruits. Bilobol is an alkylresorcinol, a type of phenolic lipids composed of long aliphatic chains and phenolic rings. It is a strong skin irritant.

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Bismuth

Bismuth is the most naturally diamagnetic of all metals. It has classically been considered to be the heaviest naturally-occurring stable element. Bismuth compounds are used in cosmetics, medicines, and in medical procedures. Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal. As the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, alloy uses for bismuth metal, as a replacement for lead, have become an increasing part of bismuth's commercial importance.

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Bromine

Bromine is in the halogen element group. Both eminent scientist Antoine Balard and Justus von Liebig discovered bromine. Bromine is the only liquid nonmetallic element. It is a member of the halogen group. It is a heavy, volatile, mobile, dangerous reddish-brown liquid. Bromine atoms may also react directly with other radicals to help terminate the free radical chain-reactions that characterize combustion. Bromine is available commercially so it is not normally necessary to make it in the laboratory. Bromine also occurs in seawater as the sodium salt but in much smaller quantities than chloride. It is recovered commercially through the treatment of seawater with chlorine gas and flushing through with air. Bromine is used in industry to make organobromo compounds. A major one was dibromoethane an agent for leaded gasoline, before they were largely phased out due to environmental considerations. Other organ bromines are used as insecticides, in fire extinguishers and to make pharmaceuticals. Bromine is used in making fumigants, dyes, flame proofing agents, water purification compounds, sanitizes, medicinals, agents for photography and in brominates vegetable oil, used as emulsifier in many citrus-flavored soft drinks. Bromine is also used in the production of brominated vegetable oil, which is used as an emulsifier in many citrus-flavored soft drinks. Bromine will also oxidize metals and metalloids to the corresponding bromides

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CELEMIX

CELEMIX is ideally suited for short-term parenteral nutrition with an advantage of administration through peripheral vein.

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