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Fenobam

Fenobam is an imidazole derivative developed by McNeil Laboratories in the late 1970s as a novel anxiolytic drug with an at-the-time-unidentified molecular target in the brain. Subsequently, it was determined that fenobam acts as a potent and selective negative allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGluR5, and it has been used as a lead compound for the development of a range of newer mGluR5 antagonists. It has anxiolytic effects comparable to those of benzodiazepine drugs, but was never commercially marketed for the treatment of anxiety due to dose-limiting side effects such as amnesia and psychotomimetic symptoms. Following the discovery of its activity as a potent negative allosteric modulator of mGluR5, fenobam has been re-investigated for many applications, with its profile of combined antidepressant, anxiolytic, analgesic and anti-addictive effects potentially useful given the common co-morbidity of these symptoms. It has also shown promising initial results in the treatment of Fragile X syndrome.

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Gallium

In 1871, existence of gallium was first predicted by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev, who named it "eka-aluminium" on the basis of its position in his periodic table. It was discovered spectroscopically by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875 by its characteristic spectrum in an examination of a sphalerite sample. It is the only metal, except for mercury, caesium, and rubidium, which can be liquid near room temperatures; this makes possible its use in high-temperature thermometers. In semiconductors, the major-use compound is gallium arsenide used in microwave circuitry and infrared applications. It is also used in alloys and fuel cells. Gallium is not known to be essential in biology, but because of the biological handling of gallium's primary ionic salt gallium(III) as though it were iron(III), the gallium ion localizes to and interacts with many processes in the body in which iron(III) is manipulated. As these processes include inflammation, which is a marker for many disease states, several gallium salts are used, or are in development, as both pharmaceuticals and radiopharmaceuticals in medicine.

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Gelatin

Gelatin is a translucent, colorless, brittle, nearly tasteless solid substance, derived from the collagen inside animals' skin and bones. It is commonly used as a gelling agent in food, pharmaceuticals, photography, and cosmetic manufacturing. Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar way are called gelatinous. Gelatin is an irreversibly hydrolysed form of collagen. It is found in some gummy candies as well as other products such as marshmallows, gelatin dessert, and some low-fat yogurt.

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Glycine

Glycine is an organic compound. With only two hydrogen atoms as its 'side chain', glycine is the smallest of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins. It is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids in that it is not chiral. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its two hydrogen atom side chain. Glycine is an intermediate in the synthesis of a variety of chemical products. It is used in the manufacture of the herbicide glyphosate. It serves as a buffering agent in antacids, analgesics, antiperspirants, cosmetics, and toiletries. It is also used as an additive in pet food and animal feed. Pharmaceutical grade glycine is produced for some pharmaceutical applications, such as intravenous injections.

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Glyoxal

Glyoxal is the smallest dialdehyde. Coated paper and in the textile finishes use large amounts of glyoxal as a crosslinker for starch-based formulations and as a starting material with ureas for wrinkle-resistant chemical treatments. It is used as a solubilizer and cross-linking agent in polymer chemistry. It is a valuable building block in organic synthesis, especially in the synthesis of heterocycles such as imidazoles. A convenient form of the reagent for use in the laboratory is its bis-hemiacetal with ethylene glycol, 1,4-dioxane-2,3-diol.

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Halomon

Halomon is a polyhalogenated monoterpene first isolated from the marine red algae Portieria hornemannii. It has attracted research interest because of its promising profile of selective cytotoxicity that suggests its potential use as an antitumor agent. It is in a class of chemical compounds known as halocarbons, which are often potent alkylating agents which may be toxic to individual cells or to living organisms. The red algae that naturally produce halomon and other related compounds probably do so as a poisonous defense against fish or other marine life that may see it as a potential source of food. Halomon, however, is a selective toxin; studies at the National Cancer Institute have indicated that it is more toxic to certain types of tumor cells than to other cells.

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Harmine

Harmine is a fluorescent harmala alkaloid belonging to the beta-carboline family of compounds. It occurs in a number of different plants, most notably the Middle Eastern plant harmal or Syrian rue and the South American vine Banisteriopsis caapi. It is a RIMA, a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), an enzyme which breaks down monoamines. It selectively binds to MAO-A but does not inhibit the variant MAO-B. MAOIs have been used to treat depression since they inhibit the breakdown of serotonin and norepinephrine, two neurotransmitters that have a role in the pathophysiology of clinical depression, suggesting that harmine may have antidepressant effect. It is a useful fluorescent pH indicator. As the pH of its local environment increases, the fluorescence emission of harmine decreases. With the radioisotope carbon-11 harmine is used in positron emission tomography neuroimaging to examine its binding to MAO-A. Harmine found in root secretions of Oxalis tuberosa has been found to have insecticidal properties.

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Heparin

Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant. It has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. Heparin acts as an anticoagulant, preventing the formation of clots and extension of existing clots within the blood.It acts mainly by accelerating the rate of the neutralization of certain activated coagulation factors by antithrombin, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The antithrombotic effect of heparin is well correlated to the inhibition of factor Xa. Heparin interacts with antithrombin III, prothrombin and factor X.

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Heptane

Heptane is a straight-chain alkane. It is widely applied in laboratories as a totally non-polar solvent. In the grease spot test, heptane is used to dissolve the oil spot to show the previous presence of organic compounds on a stained paper. Heptane is commercially available as mixed isomers for use in paints and coatings, as the rubber cement solvent "Bestine", the outdoor stove fuel "Powerfuel" by Primus, as pure n-Heptane for research and development and pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a minor component of gasoline.

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Holmium

Holmium is a rare earth element. Its oxide was first isolated from rare earth ores in 1878 and the element was named after the city of Stockholm. It is found in the minerals monazite and gadolinite, and is usually commercially extracted from monazite using ion exchange techniques. It has the highest magnetic strength of any element and therefore is used for the polepieces of the strongest static magnets. Because holmium strongly absorbs nuclear fission-bred neutrons, it is used in nuclear control rods. It is also used in yttrium-iron-garnet and yttrium-lanthanum-fluoride solid-state lasers found in microwave equipment. Holmium lasers emit at 2.08 micrometres, and therefore are safe to eyes. They are used in medical, dental, and fiber-optical applications. Holmium is one of the colorants used for cubic zirconia and glass, providing yellow or red coloring.

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