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Gelatin is a translucent, colorless, brittle, nearly tasteless solid substance, derived from the collagen inside animals' skin and bones. It is commonly used as a gelling agent in food, pharmaceuticals, photography, and cosmetic manufacturing. Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar way are called gelatinous. Gelatin is an irreversibly hydrolysed form of collagen. It is found in some gummy candies as well as other products such as marshmallows, gelatin dessert, and some low-fat yogurt.

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Glycine is an organic compound. With only two hydrogen atoms as its 'side chain', glycine is the smallest of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins. It is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids in that it is not chiral. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its two hydrogen atom side chain. Glycine is an intermediate in the synthesis of a variety of chemical products. It is used in the manufacture of the herbicide glyphosate. It serves as a buffering agent in antacids, analgesics, antiperspirants, cosmetics, and toiletries. It is also used as an additive in pet food and animal feed. Pharmaceutical grade glycine is produced for some pharmaceutical applications, such as intravenous injections.

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Glyoxal is the smallest dialdehyde. Coated paper and in the textile finishes use large amounts of glyoxal as a crosslinker for starch-based formulations and as a starting material with ureas for wrinkle-resistant chemical treatments. It is used as a solubilizer and cross-linking agent in polymer chemistry. It is a valuable building block in organic synthesis, especially in the synthesis of heterocycles such as imidazoles. A convenient form of the reagent for use in the laboratory is its bis-hemiacetal with ethylene glycol, 1,4-dioxane-2,3-diol.

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Halomon is a polyhalogenated monoterpene first isolated from the marine red algae Portieria hornemannii. It has attracted research interest because of its promising profile of selective cytotoxicity that suggests its potential use as an antitumor agent. It is in a class of chemical compounds known as halocarbons, which are often potent alkylating agents which may be toxic to individual cells or to living organisms. The red algae that naturally produce halomon and other related compounds probably do so as a poisonous defense against fish or other marine life that may see it as a potential source of food. Halomon, however, is a selective toxin; studies at the National Cancer Institute have indicated that it is more toxic to certain types of tumor cells than to other cells.


Harmine is a fluorescent harmala alkaloid belonging to the beta-carboline family of compounds. It occurs in a number of different plants, most notably the Middle Eastern plant harmal or Syrian rue and the South American vine Banisteriopsis caapi. It is a RIMA, a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), an enzyme which breaks down monoamines. It selectively binds to MAO-A but does not inhibit the variant MAO-B. MAOIs have been used to treat depression since they inhibit the breakdown of serotonin and norepinephrine, two neurotransmitters that have a role in the pathophysiology of clinical depression, suggesting that harmine may have antidepressant effect. It is a useful fluorescent pH indicator. As the pH of its local environment increases, the fluorescence emission of harmine decreases. With the radioisotope carbon-11 harmine is used in positron emission tomography neuroimaging to examine its binding to MAO-A. Harmine found in root secretions of Oxalis tuberosa has been found to have insecticidal properties.

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Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant. It has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. Heparin acts as an anticoagulant, preventing the formation of clots and extension of existing clots within the blood.It acts mainly by accelerating the rate of the neutralization of certain activated coagulation factors by antithrombin, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The antithrombotic effect of heparin is well correlated to the inhibition of factor Xa. Heparin interacts with antithrombin III, prothrombin and factor X.

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Heptane is a straight-chain alkane. It is widely applied in laboratories as a totally non-polar solvent. In the grease spot test, heptane is used to dissolve the oil spot to show the previous presence of organic compounds on a stained paper. Heptane is commercially available as mixed isomers for use in paints and coatings, as the rubber cement solvent "Bestine", the outdoor stove fuel "Powerfuel" by Primus, as pure n-Heptane for research and development and pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a minor component of gasoline.

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Holmium is a rare earth element. Its oxide was first isolated from rare earth ores in 1878 and the element was named after the city of Stockholm. It is found in the minerals monazite and gadolinite, and is usually commercially extracted from monazite using ion exchange techniques. It has the highest magnetic strength of any element and therefore is used for the polepieces of the strongest static magnets. Because holmium strongly absorbs nuclear fission-bred neutrons, it is used in nuclear control rods. It is also used in yttrium-iron-garnet and yttrium-lanthanum-fluoride solid-state lasers found in microwave equipment. Holmium lasers emit at 2.08 micrometres, and therefore are safe to eyes. They are used in medical, dental, and fiber-optical applications. Holmium is one of the colorants used for cubic zirconia and glass, providing yellow or red coloring.

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Icariin is a flavonol, a type of flavonoid. It is the prenyl acetylation of kaempferide 3,7-O-diglucoside. The compound is derived from several species of plants in the Epimedium family. Extracts from these plants are reputed to produce aphrodisiac effects, and are commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine to enhance erectile function, as well as for several other indications. It is thought that icariin is likely to be the primary active component of Epimedium extracts, as it has been shown to share several mechanisms of action with compounds used in Western medicine to treat impotence and improve sexual function. In particular, icariin has been demonstrated to act as a PDE5 inhibitor and to enhance the production of bioactive nitric oxide, as well as mimicking the effects of testosterone. It also shows antioxidant, antidepressant and nootropic effects in animal studies, as well as stimulating osteoblast activity in bone tissue which has been linked to a possible therapeutic role in the treatment of osteoporosis.

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Inosine is used in the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases.

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