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Icariin

Icariin is a flavonol, a type of flavonoid. It is the prenyl acetylation of kaempferide 3,7-O-diglucoside. The compound is derived from several species of plants in the Epimedium family. Extracts from these plants are reputed to produce aphrodisiac effects, and are commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine to enhance erectile function, as well as for several other indications. It is thought that icariin is likely to be the primary active component of Epimedium extracts, as it has been shown to share several mechanisms of action with compounds used in Western medicine to treat impotence and improve sexual function. In particular, icariin has been demonstrated to act as a PDE5 inhibitor and to enhance the production of bioactive nitric oxide, as well as mimicking the effects of testosterone. It also shows antioxidant, antidepressant and nootropic effects in animal studies, as well as stimulating osteoblast activity in bone tissue which has been linked to a possible therapeutic role in the treatment of osteoporosis.

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Inosine

Inosine is used in the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases.

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Intybin

Intybin is a bitter substance that has a sedative and analgesic effect, acting on the central nervous system. It is a sesquiterpene lactone, and is a component of lactucarium, derived from the plant Lactuca virosa, as well as being found in some related plants such as Cichorium intybus. As well as their traditional use as sedatives and analgesics, these plants have also been used as antimalarials, and both lactucin and lactucopicrin have demonstrated antimalarial effects in vitro. It has also been shown to act as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.

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Iohexol

Iohexol is an effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.

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Isomalt

Isomalt is a sugar substitute and it is a type of sugar alcohol.It is a disaccharide composed of the two sugars glucose and mannitol. It is an odorless, white, crystalline substance.It is a sugar replacer derived from surose.Isomalt s applied in a broad range such as candies, drink, chocolate, chewing gum, baked food, ice-cream, biscuit, pharmaceutical products.

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Lactose

Lactose is a disaccharide sugar that is found most notably in milk and is formed from galactose and glucose. It is extracted from sweet or sour whey.It is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose, and isomerised in alkaline solution to lactulose.It is used as a carrier,binding agent and stabiliser of aromas and pharmaceutical products.It can be used in bakery goods for enhancing browning and reducing sweetness.

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Lithium

Lithium is a metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, lithium batteries and lithium-ion batteries. Lithium niobate is used extensively in telecommunication products such as mobile phones and optical modulators, for such components as resonant crystals. Lithium is also used in the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industry in the manufacture of organolithium reagents, which are used both as strong bases and as reagents for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. Organolithium compounds are also used in polymer synthesis as catalysts/initiators in anionic polymerization of unfunctionalized olefins. Lithium compounds continue to be the gold standard for the treatment of bipolar disorder and are helpful for related diagnoses, such as schizoaffective disorder and cyclic major depression.

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Logimax

Logimax is a a fixed-dose, once-daily combination of the vascular selective calcium antagonist, felodipine, and the cardioselective beta-blocker, metoprolol.Logimax is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension).

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MLN0905

MLN0905 is a potent, selective small-molecule PLK1 inhibitor. MLN0905 inhibits cell proliferation in a broad range of human tumor cells including DLBCL cell lines.

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Mercury

Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. It is used primarily for the manufacture of industrial chemicals or for electrical and electronic applications. It is used in some thermometers, especially ones which are used to measure high temperatures. A still increasing amount is used as gaseous mercury in fluorescent lamps, while most of the other applications are slowly phased out due to health and safety regulations and is in some applications replaced with less toxic but considerably more expensive Galinstan alloy. Mercury and its compounds have been used in medicine, although they are much less common today than they once were, now that the toxic effects of mercury and its compounds are more widely understood. The element mercury is an ingredient in dental amalgams. Mercury, as thiomersal, is widely used in the manufacture of mascara. The largest use of mercury in the late 20th century was in the mercury cell process where metallic sodium is formed as an amalgam at a cathode made from mercury; this sodium is then reacted with water to produce sodium hydroxide. Historically, mercury was used extensively in hydraulic gold mining in order to help the gold to sink through the flowing water-gravel mixture. RoHS bans mercury from certain electrical and electronic products, and limits the amount of mercury in other products to less than 1000 ppm.

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