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Fluorine

Fluorine is the most electronegative and reactive of all elements. Natural fluorine is monoisotopic, consisting of fluorine-19. It has found uses in studies of protein structures and conformational changes. Elemental fluorine is occasionally used as a fluorinating agent in industrial processes. The largest use for elemental fluorine is preparing uranium hexafluoride, used in the production of nuclear fuels. Other than those, elemental fluorine is used for the production of tetrafluoromethane, plasma etching in semiconductor manufacturing, flat panel display production, and microelectromechanical systems fabrication. Inorganic fluorides and organofluorine compounds, a fraction of which are prepared from elemental fluorine, find use in a variety of materials and chemicals, including important pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, lubricants, and textiles. Hydrofluoric acid and certain fluoride-containing salts are useful etchants for glass. In the electrolysis of the metal and its purification, it acts to lower the melting point of aluminium oxide and acts like a powerful flux for glass. Perfluorooctanoic acid and tetrafluoroethylene are directly used in water resistant coatings and in the production of low friction plastics such as Teflon, or PTFE. Other fluorine-based compounds are used in the production of haloalkanes such as chlorofluorocarbons, which are used extensively in air conditioning and in refrigeration. They have been banned for these applications because they contribute to ozone destruction.

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GDC-0941

GDC-0941 is an orally bioavailable, and is a potent small-molecule thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine inhibitor of the class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) isoforms p100alpha and p100delta with potential antineoplastic activity.

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GPG 3565

GPG 3565 as functions such as Humectancy, solvency, viscosity modification, conditioning, freeze-point depression, stabilization, anticaking, emulsification.

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GSK-3787

GSK-3787 is a potent and selective ligand for PPARdelta with good pharmacokinetic properties.

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Gabexate

Gabexate is a serine protease inhibitor which is used therapeutically in the treatment of pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and as a regional anticoagulant for haemodialysis.

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Gingerol

Gingerol is the active constituent of fresh ginger. Chemically, gingerol is a relative of capsaicin and piperine, the compounds which give chilli peppers and black pepper their respective spicyness. It may reduce nausea caused by motion sickness or pregnancy and may also relieve migraine. It has been used to induce a hypothermic state in rats. Gingerol seems to be effective in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. It has been investigated for its effect on cancerous tumors in the bowel, breast tissue, ovaries, the pancreas, among other tissues, with positive results.

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Glaucine

Glaucine is an alkaloid found in several different plant species such as Glaucium flavum, Glaucium oxylobum, Croton lechleri and Corydalis yanhusuo. It has bronchodilator and antiinflammatory effects, acting as a PDE4 inhibitor and calcium channel blocker, and is used medically as an antitussive in some countries. It may produce side effects such as sedation, fatigue, and a hallucinogenic effect characterised by colourful visual images, and has recently been detected as a novel recreational drug.

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Gossypol

Gossypol is a natural phenol derived from the cotton plant. It is a phenolic aldehyde that permeates cells and acts as an inhibitor for several dehydrogenase enzymes. It has been tested as a male oral contraceptive. In addition to its contraceptive properties, gossypol has also long been known to possess antimalarial properties. Other researchers are investigating the anticancer properties of gossypol.

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Guaiacol

Guaiacol is a naturally occurring organic compound. Although it is biosynthesized by a variety of organisms, this colorless aromatic oil is usually derived from guaiacum or wood creosote. It is present in wood smoke, resulting from the pyrolysis of lignin. Guaiacol is a precursor to various flavorants such as eugenol and vanillin. Its derivatives are used medicinally as an expectorant, antiseptic, and local anesthetic. It also can be used as a dye in chemical reactions as oxygen will turn guaiacol from colorless to brown.

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Honokiol

Honokiol is a biphenolic compound present in the cones, bark, and leaves of Magnolia grandifloris that has been used in the traditional Japanese medicine Saiboku-to as an anxiolytic, antithrombotic, anti-depressant, anti-emetic, and anti-bacterial. While early research on the effective compounds in traditional remedies have simply used whole magnolia bark extracts, known as houpu magnolia, recent work has identified honokiol and its structural isomer magnolol as the active compounds in magnolia bark. In the late 1990s, honokiol saw a revival in western countries as a potent and highly tolerable anti-tumorigenic and neurotrophic compound.

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