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Arsanilic Acid

Arsanilic Acid is the organoarsenic compound.It is a derivative of phenylarsonic acid with an amine in the 4-position. It exists as a zwitterion.It can be obtained from the aqueous alkaline solution either as the free acid or as the sodium salt.It can be prepared from aniline and arsenic acid.It is an arsenical antibacterial veterinary medicine used in the prevention and the treatment of swine dysentery.

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Arsenic

Arsenic is a metalloid. It occurs in many minerals, usually in conjunction with sulfur and metals, and also as a pure elemental crystal. It was first documented by Albertus Magnus in 1250. The main use of metallic arsenic is for strengthening alloys of copper and especially lead. It is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the most common semiconductor in use after doped silicon. Arsenic and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides. These applications are declining, however, as many of these compounds are being phased out. Arsenic poisoning from naturally occurring arsenic compounds in drinking water remains a problem in many parts of the world. During the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, a number of arsenic compounds have been used as medicines, including arsphenamine and arsenic trioxide. Arsphenamine as well as neosalvarsan was indicated for syphilis and trypanosomiasis, but has been superseded by modern antibiotics. Arsenic trioxide has been used in a variety of ways over the past 500 years, but most commonly in the treatment of cancer. Arsenic is also used in bronzing and pyrotechnics and for taxonomic sample preservation.

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Arsenic Trioxide

Arsenic trioxide is an inorganic compound. This commercially important oxide of arsenic is the main precursor to other arsenic compounds, including organoarsenic compounds. Large scale applications include its use as a precursor to forestry products, in colorless glass production, and in electronics. Organoarsenic compounds, e.g. feed additives (Roxarsone) and pharmaceuticals (Neosalvarsan), are derived from arsenic trioxide. A variety of applications exploit arsenic's toxicity, including the use of the oxide as a wood preservative. In combination with copper(II) acetate arsenic trioxide gives the vibrant pigment known as paris green used both in paints and as a rodenticide. This application has been discontinued.

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Artemether

Artemether is an antimalarial for the treatment of multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. It is a methyl ether derivative of artemisinin, which is a peroxide lactone isolated from the Chinese antimalarial plant, Artemisia annua. Artemether is highly effective against the blood schizonts of both malarial parasites P. falciparum and P. vivax. It is applied in combination with lumefantrine in clinical treatments of malaria. Artemether has been shown to have significant anticancer and antitumor activities. It is demonstrated that artemether caused strong inhibitory effects on brain glioma growth and angiogenesis in rats. It exhibits a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity, and induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer cell lines, human leukemia HL60 cells, and human pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 and AsPC-1 cells.

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Artemisinin

Artemisinin and its derivatives are a group of drugs that possess the most rapid action of all current drugs against falciparum malaria. Treatments containing an artemisinin derivative (artemisinin-combination therapies, ACTs) are now standard treatment worldwide for falciparum malaria. Artemisinin is undergoing early research and testing for the treatment of cancer, Chinese scientists have shown artemisinin has significant anticancer effects against human hepatoma cells.

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Arthron® TriActive

Arthron® TriActive is a combination of glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM specifically formulated to help defend the body against cartilage deterioration and reduce pain in the joints.

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Articaine hydrochloride

Articaine hydrochloride is the most widely used local anesthetic agent in dentistry. The amide structure of articaine is similar to that of other local anasthetics, but it contains an additional ester group which is quickly hydrolysed by esterases. Articaine has an equal analgesic efficacy as other amide-type local anesthetics, but lower systemic toxicity.

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Arzoxifene

Arzoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator. It is a potent estrogen antagonist in mammary and uterine tissue while acting as an estrogen agonist to maintain bone density and lower serum cholesterol. It is a highly effective agent for prevention of mammary cancer induced in the rat by the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea and is significantly more potent than raloxifene in this regard. It is devoid of the uterotrophic effects of tamoxifen, suggesting that, in contrast to tamoxifen, it is unlikely that the clinical use of arzoxifene will increase the risk of developing endometrial carcinoma.

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Ascomycin

Ascomycin is an ethyl analog of tacrolimus with strong immunosuppressant properties. It can be used to treat autoimmune diseases and skin diseases, and can help prevent rejection after an organ transplant. It acts by binding to immunophilins, especially macrophilin-12. It appears that Ascomycin inhibits the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Additionally, ascomycin preferentially inhibits the activation of mast cells, an important cellular component of the atopic response. Ascomycin produces a more selective immunomodulatory effect in that it inhibits the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis but does not impair the primary immune response when administered systemically.

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Ascorbic Acid

Ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring organic compound with antioxidant properties. Ascorbic acid and its sodium, potassium, and calcium salts are commonly used as antioxidant food additives. In plastic manufacturing, ascorbic acid can be used to assemble molecular chains more quickly and with less waste than traditional synthesis methods. It is a cofactor in tyrosine oxidation. It is easily oxidized and so is used as a reductant in photographic developer solutions and as a preservative. In fluorescence microscopy and related fluorescence-based techniques, ascorbic acid can be used as an antioxidant to increase fluorescent signal and chemically retard dye photobleaching. It is also commonly used to remove dissolved metal stains, such as iron, from fiberglass swimming pool surfaces.

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