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Pine Oil

Pine oil is an essential oil obtained by the steam distillation of needles, twigs and cones from a variety of species of pine, particularly Pinus sylvestris. Chemically, pine oil consists mainly of cyclic terpene alcohols. It may also contain terpene hydrocarbons, ethers, and esters. The exact composition depends on various factors such as the variety of pine it is produced from and the parts of the tree used. It is used in aromatherapy, as a scent in bath oils, as a cleaning product, and as a lubricant in small and expensive clockwork instruments. It is naturally deodorizing, and antibacterial. It may also be used varyingly as a disinfectant, massage oil and an antiseptic. Industrially, pine oil is used in metal extraction from ores.

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Prazepam

Prazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is a prodrug for desmethyldiazepam which is an active metabolite of prazepam. Desmethyldiazepam is responsible for the therapeutic effects of prazepam.

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Probucol

Probucol is an anti-hyperlipidemic drug initially developed for the treatment of coronary artery disease. However, clinical trials were stopped after it was found that may lower HDL in patients with a previous history of heart disease. It was initially developed in the 1970s by a chemical company to maximize airplane tire longevity.

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Procaine

Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. It is used primarily to reduce the pain of intramuscular injection of penicillin, and it was also used in dentistry. It acts mainly by being a sodium channel blocker. It was first synthesized in 1905, shortly after amylocaine, and is the oldest man-made local anesthetic still in clinical use for injection. It was created by the German chemist Alfred Einhorn.

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Profadol

Profadol is an opioid analgesic which was developed in the late 1960s. It acts as a mixed agonist-antagonist of the μ-opioid receptor. The analgetic potency is about the same as of meperidine, the antagonistic effect is 1/50 of Nalorphine.

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Propofol

Propofol is an intravenous anaesthetic agent used for induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia. Propofol is used to sedate individuals who are receiving mechanical ventilation. It may be used prior to diagnostic procedures requiring anaesthesia, in the management of refractory status epilepticus, and for induction and/or maintenance of anaesthesia prior to and during surgeries. Its action of propofol involves a positive modulation of the inhibitory function of the neurotransmitter gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) through GABA-A receptors.

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Psilocin

Psilocin, an aromatic compound, is a psychedelic mushroom alkaloid. It is found in most psychedelic mushrooms together with its phosphorylated counterpart psilocybin. It is the pharmacologically active agent in the body after ingestion of psilocybin or some species of psychedelic mushrooms. It is rapidly dephosphorylated in the body to psilocin which acts as a 5HT2A, 5HT2C and 5HT1A agonist. It is structurally similar to serotonin (5-HT), differing only by the hydroxyl group being on the 4-position rather than the 5 and the dimethyl groups on the nitrogen. Its effects are thought to come from its partial agonist activity at 5-HT2A serotonin receptors in the prefrontal cortex. It has no significant effect on dopamine receptors and only affects the noradrenergic system at very high dosages.

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Pyrazole

Pyrazole refers both to the class of simple aromatic ring organic compounds of the heterocyclic diazole series characterized by a 5-membered ring structure composed of three carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms in adjacent positions, and to the unsubstituted parent compound. Being so composed and having pharmacological effects on humans, they are classified as alkaloids, although they are rare in nature. In 1959, the first natural pyrazole, 1-pyrazolyl-alanine, was isolated from seeds of watermelons. The term pyrazole was given to this class of compounds by Ludwig Knorr in 1883. In medicine, derivatives of pyrazoles are used for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiarrhythmic, tranquilizing, muscle relaxing, psychoanaleptic, anticonvulsant, monoamineoxidase inhibiting, antidiabetic and antibacterial activities.

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Pyridine

Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound. It was discovered in 1849 by the Scottish chemist Thomas Anderson as one of the constituents of bone oil. Two years later, Anderson isolated pure pyridine through fractional distillation of the oil. It is used as a precursor to agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals and is also an important solvent and reagent. Pyridine is added to ethanol to make it unsuitable for drinking. It is used in the synthesis of sulfapyridine, antihistaminic drugs tripelennamine and mepyramine, as well as water repellents, bactericides and herbicides.

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Quazepam

Quazepam is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It is indicated for the treatment of insomnia including sleep induction and sleep maintenance. It induces impairment of motor function and has hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties with less overdose potential than other benzodiazepines. It is an effective hypnotic which induces and maintains sleep without disruption of the sleep architecture. It is a trifluoroethyl type of benzodiazepine. It is unique amongst benzodiazepines in that it selectively targets the GABAA type1 receptors which are responsible for inducing sleep. Its mechanism of action is very similar to zolpidem and zaleplon in its pharmacology and can successfully substitute for zolpidem and zaleplon in animal studies.

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