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Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound. It was discovered in 1849 by the Scottish chemist Thomas Anderson as one of the constituents of bone oil. Two years later, Anderson isolated pure pyridine through fractional distillation of the oil. It is used as a precursor to agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals and is also an important solvent and reagent. Pyridine is added to ethanol to make it unsuitable for drinking. It is used in the synthesis of sulfapyridine, antihistaminic drugs tripelennamine and mepyramine, as well as water repellents, bactericides and herbicides.

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Quazepam is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It is indicated for the treatment of insomnia including sleep induction and sleep maintenance. It induces impairment of motor function and has hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties with less overdose potential than other benzodiazepines. It is an effective hypnotic which induces and maintains sleep without disruption of the sleep architecture. It is a trifluoroethyl type of benzodiazepine. It is unique amongst benzodiazepines in that it selectively targets the GABAA type1 receptors which are responsible for inducing sleep. Its mechanism of action is very similar to zolpidem and zaleplon in its pharmacology and can successfully substitute for zolpidem and zaleplon in animal studies.


Ramipril is a prodrug belonging to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is metabolized to ramiprilat in the liver and, to a lesser extent, kidneys. Ramiprilat is a potent, competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). Ramipril may be used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, nephropathy, and to reduce the rate of death, myocardial infarction and stroke in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular events.

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Rose Oil

Rose oil is extracted from the petals of various species of rose. The oil is extensively used in perfumery. It has also been used in Ayurved as a medicine.It is used as Fragrance and flavor ingredient, aromatherapy oils, in fine cosmetic products

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SR 48692

SR-48692 is a drug which acts as a selective, non-peptide antagonist at the neurotensin receptor NTS1, and was the first non-peptide antagonist developed for this receptor. It is used in scientific research to explore the interaction between neurotensin and other neurotransmitters in the brain, and produces anxiolytic, anti-addictive and memory-impairing effects in animal studies.


SRT1720 is a selective activator of human SIRT1. It binds to the SIRT1 enzyme-peptide substrate complex at an allosteric site amino-terminal to the catalytic domain and lower the Michaelis constant for acetylated substrates.

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Saclofen is a competitive antagonist for the GABAB receptor. This drug is an analogue of the GABAB agonist Baclofen. The GABAB receptor is heptahelical receptor, expressed as an obligate heterodimer, which couples to the Gi/o class of heterotrimeric G-proteins. The action of saclofen on the central nervous system is understandably modest, because G-proteins rely on an enzyme cascade to alter cell behavior while ionotropic receptors immediately change the ionic permeability of the neuronal plasma membrane, thus changing its firing patterns. These particular receptors, presynaptically inhibit N- and P/Q- VGCCs via a direct interaction of the dissociated beta gamma subunit of the g-protein with the intracellular loop between the 1st and 2nd domain of the VGCC's alpha-subunit; postsynaptically, these potentiate Kir currents. Both result in inhibitory effects.

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Samarium was discovered in 1879 by the French chemist Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran and named after the mineral samarskite where it was isolated from. It has no significant biological role and is only slightly toxic. One of the most important applications of samarium is in samarium-cobalt magnets, these magnets are found in small motors, headphones, high-end magnetic pickups for guitars and related musical instruments. Another important application of samarium and its compounds is as catalyst and chemical reagent. In its usual oxidized form, samarium is added to ceramics and glasses where it increases absorption of infrared light. Radioactive samarium-153 is used to kill cancer cells in the treatment of lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Samarium-doped calcium fluoride crystals were used as an active medium in one of the first solid-state lasers designed and constructed by Peter Sorokin and Mirek Stevenson at IBM research labs in early 1961.

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Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol that the human body metabolizes slowly. It can be obtained by reduction of glucose, changing the aldehyde group to a hydroxyl group. It is found in apples, pears, peaches, and prunes. It is synthesized by sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and converted to fructose by succinate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase. It is often used in diet foods, mints, cough syrups, and sugar-free chewing gum. It can be used as a non-stimulant laxative via an oral suspension or enema, and like other sugar alcohols with the exception of erythritol, may cause inadvertent GI distress when consuming food products with sorbitol in excess. It works by drawing water into the large intestine, thereby stimulating bowel movements. Sorbitol, combined with kayexalate, helps the body rid itself of excess potassium ions in a hyperkalaemic state. The kayexalate exchanges sodium ions for potassium ions in the bowel, while sorbitol helps to eliminate it. Sorbitol often is used in modern cosmetics as a humectant and thickener. It is used in mouthwash and toothpaste.

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Squalene is a natural organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil, though plant sources are used as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives.It is used in cosmetics as a natural moisturizer,as an adjuvant in vaccines.

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