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Abatacept

Abatacept is a soluble fusion protein, which links the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) to the modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). It is produced through recombinant DNA technology in mammalian cells.Abatacept is a selective costimulation modulator, shown to inhibit Tcell (T lymphocyte) activation by binding to CD80 and CD86, thereby blocking interaction with CD28. Blockade of this interaction has been shown to inhibit the autoimmune T-Cell activation that has been implcated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.Doses up to 50 mg/kg have been administered without apparent toxic effect.

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Abecarnil

Abecarnil is an anxiolytic drug from the β-Carboline family. It is one of a relatively recently developed class of medicines known as the nonbenzodiazepines, which have similar effects to the older benzodiazepine group, but with quite different chemical structures. It is a partial agonist acting selectively at the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor.

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Acadesine

Acadesine is an AMP-activated protein kinase activator which is used for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and may have applications in treating other disorders such as diabetes. It is an adenosine regulating agent. The drug is a potential first-in-class agent for prevention of reperfusion injury in CABG surgery.

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Acetarsol

Acetarsol is an anti-infective drug. It has been given in suppositories.

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Aciclovir

Aciclovir is a guanosine analogue antiviral drug. One of the most commonly used antiviral drugs, it is primarily used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, as well as in the treatment of varicella zoster and herpes zoster.

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Acitretin

Acitretin is a second generation retinoid. It is a metabolite of etretinate.It is taken orally, and is typically used for psoriasis.Acitretin works by inhibiting the excessive cell growth and keratinisation (process by which skin cells become thickened due to the deposition of a protein within them) seen in psoriasis. It therefore reduces the thickening of the skin, plaque formation and scaling.

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Adapalene

Adapalene is a third-generation topical retinoid.It is primarily used in the treatment of mild-moderate acne and is also used to treat keratosis pilaris as well as other skin conditions,topical treatment of comedo, papular and pustular acne (acne vulgaris) of the face, chest or back.Adapalene in small concentrations is a moderator of cellular differentiation, keratinization, and inflammatory processes. It has both exfoliating and anti-inflammatory effects.

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Adrafinil

Adrafinil is a mild central nervous system stimulant drug used to relieve excessive sleepiness and inattention in elderly patients. It is also used off-label by individuals wishing to avoid fatigue, such as night workers or others who need to stay awake and alert for long periods of time.

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Akuammine

Akuammine, an indole alkaloid, is the most abundant active alkaloid found in the seeds from the tree Picralima nitida, commonly known as Akuamma. The seeds are mainly used for the treatment of malaria and diarrhoea, and as a painkiller. Akuammine is structurally related to both yohimbine and mitragynine, both of which are alkaloid plant products with uses in medicine.

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Alazocine

Alazocine was the first drug discovered to act as a σ1 receptor agonist. It has no significant affinity for the σ2 receptor. It also acts as a κ-opioid receptor agonist, and to a much lesser extent, as an NMDA receptor antagonist.

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