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Metformin

Metformin is an oral antidiabetic drug in the biguanide class. It is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in particular, in overweight and obese people and those with normal kidney function. It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome, and has been investigated for other diseases where insulin resistance may be an important factor. Metformin works by suppressing glucose production from three-carbon molecules by the liver.

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Methylone

Methylone is an entactogen and stimulant of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone classes.It acts as a mixed reuptake inhibitor or releasing agent of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

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Metiamide

Metiamide is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist developed from another H2 antagonist, burimamide. It was an intermediate compound in the development of the successful anti-ulcer drug cimetidine. It reduces basal and nocturnal gastric acid secretion and a reduction in gastric volume, acidity, and amount of gastric acid released in response to stimuli including food, caffeine, insulin, betazole, or pentagastrin. Metiamide inhibits many of the isoenzymes of the hepatic CYP450 enzyme system. Other actions of Metiamide include an increase in gastric bacterial flora such as nitrate-reducing organisms.

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Minoxidil

Minoxidil is an antihypertensive vasodilator medication which also slows or stops hair loss and promotes hair regrowth.It is an orally effective direct acting peripheral vasodilator that reduces elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance. Minoxidil is also used topically to treat androgenetic alopecia.It is thought to promote the survival of human dermal papillary cells (DPCs) or hair cells by activating both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt and by preventing cell death by increasing the ratio of BCl-2/Bax. Minoxidil may stimulate the growth of human hairs by prolonging anagen through these proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on DPCs. Minoxidil, when used as a vasodilator, acts by opening adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.

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Modafinil

Modafinil is a stimulant drug marketed as a 'wakefulness promoting agent' and is one of the stimulants used in the treatment of narcolepsy.Modafinil inhibit the reuptake of dopamine by binding to the dopamine reuptake pump, and lead to an increase in extracellular dopamine Modafinil activates glutamatergic circuits while inhibiting GABA. Modafinil is thought to have less potential for abuse than other stimulants due to the absence of any significant euphoric or pleasurable effects. It is possible that modafinil acts by a synergistic combination of mechanisms including direct inhibition of dopamine reuptake, indirect inhibition of noradrenalin reuptake in the VLPO and orexin activation. Modafinil has partial alpha 1B-adrenergic agonist effects by directly stimulating the receptors.

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Morindone

Morindone is an anthraquinone compound obtained from various Morinda species. Its principal use is as a dye, but it has also been investigated for anticancer and microbial uses.

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Mosapride

Mosapride is a gastroprokinetic agent that acts as a selective 5HT4 agonist which accelerates gastric emptying and is used for the treatment of acid reflux, irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia.

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N-Butanol

N-Butanol occurs naturally as a minor product of the fermentation of sugars and other carbohydrates,and is present in many foods and beverages.It is an intermediate in the production of butyl acrylate, butyl acetate, dibutyl phthalate, dibutyl sebacate and other butyl esters.It is also used in food industry,pharmaceuticals, cosmetics& personal care products,polymers, pyroxylin plastics, herbicide esters.

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Nabazenil

Nabazenil is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, which has anticonvulsant properties.

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Nalmefene

Nalmefene is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence, and also has been investigated for the treatment of other addictions such as pathological gambling and addiction to shopping. It is an opiate derivative similar in both structure and activity to the opiate antagonist naltrexone. Advantages of nalmefene relative to naltrexone include longer half-life, greater oral bioavailability and no observed dose-dependent liver toxicity. As with other drugs of this type, nalmefene can precipitate acute withdrawal symptoms in patients who are dependent on opioid drugs, or more rarely when used post-operatively to counteract the effects of strong opioids used in surgery.

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