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What are Propellants and It's Types

Propellant are chemicals that are used for energy or pressurized gas production which are later utilized for creating fluid movement or for generating vehicle, projectile or another object propulsion. Propellants are either burned or decompose for producing the propellant gas, rest propellants are liquid which are readily vaporized.


Types of Propellants

- Aerosols Propellants

Aerosol propellant are compressed gases or vapors which carry substance from the container. Aerosol propellants are widely used in aerosol sprays. Aerosol propellants have wide application in medicine, food and beverages, cosmetics, automotive and paint industries. Chlorofluorocarbons were the most widely used propellants but were impacting the ozone layer. Volatile hydrocarbons have now been utilized as harmful propellants replacement as they are less harmful. Few examples of aerosols propellants include Butanes, Propane, Isobutane etc.

- Rocket Propellants

In rockets or aircrafts propellants are used to produce a gas that is directed through a nozzle, producing thrust. The pressure can be compressed gas, or a gas produced though chemicals reactions. Some of the rocket propellants are methane, ethanol, hydrazine, ammonium perchlorate etc.

- Solid Propellants

Solid propellants are mainly used in propulsion of gun and rocket. A solid propellant includes several ingredients such as oxidizers (often ammonium perchlorate), fuel (aluminum), binder (generally polyurethane or polybutadienes), plasticizer and other such agents. There are generally four types of solid propellants: Single based propellant, double based propellant, triple based propellant and composite propellant.

- Liquid Propellants

Liquid propellant can be a fuel and an oxidizer. Generally, fuel include kerosene, alcohol, hydrazine and hydrogen. Typically, oxidizers include nitric acid, nitrogen tetroxide, liquid oxygen and fluorine. Liquid propellants of a single chemical (monopropellant) or two chemicals mixture (bipropellants).

- Hybrid Propellants

Hybrid propellant is group of liquid propellant and soli propellant. Usually the fuel is solid and the oxidizer is liquid in hybrid propellant. Common oxidizers include oxygen, nitrous oxide and hydrogen peroxide and some of paraffin wax, hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene.

- Pharmaceutical Propellants

Pharmaceutical propellant is responsible for the development of pressure within the container to expel the product the moment valve is opened. The pharmaceutical propellant acts as diluents and solvents. Depending on the use, different kinds of propellant are used such as liquified gases like hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, Chlorofluorocarbons and compressed gases like nitrogen, carbon dioxide.


Where to buy pigments?

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