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Bentonite

Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate, generally impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. There are different types of bentonites and their names depend on the dominant elements, such as potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and aluminum (Al). As noted in several places in the geologic literature, there are some nomenclatorial problems with the classification of bentonite clays. Bentonite usually forms from weathering of volcanic ash, most often in the presence of water. However, the term bentonite, as well as a similar clay called tonstein, have been used for clay beds of uncertain origin. For industrial purposes, two main classes of bentonite exist: sodium and calcium bentonite. In stratigraphy and tephrochronology, completely devitrified (weathered volcanic gla

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Magnesium

Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal and the seventh most abundant element in the Earth's crust. It is the 11th most abundant element by mass in the human body; its ions are essential to all living cells, where they play a major role in manipulating important biological polyphosphate compounds like ATP, DNA, and RNA. It is also the metallic ion at the center of chlorophyll, and is thus a common additive to fertilizers. Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids, and in a number of situations where stabilization of abnormal nerve excitation and blood vessel spasm is required. The main applications of magnesium are, component of aluminium alloys, in die-casting, to remove sulfur in the production of iron and steel, the production of titanium in the Kroll process. Magnesium, in its purest form, can be compared with aluminium, and is strong and light, so it is used in several high volume part manufacturing applications, including automotive and truck components. The second application field of magnesium is electronic devices. Because of low weight, good mechanical and electrical properties, magnesium is widely used for manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop computers, cameras, and other electronic components. Magnesium's high burning temperature makes it a useful tool for starting emergency fires during outdoor recreation. Other uses include flash photography, flares, pyrotechnics and fireworks sparklers. It is also used in the form of turnings or ribbons, to prepare Grignard reagents, which are useful in organic synthesis.

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Manganese

Manganese is found as a free element in nature, and in many minerals. As a free element, manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. It is essential to iron and steel production by virtue of its sulfur-fixing, deoxidizing, and alloying properties. The second large application for manganese is as alloying agent for aluminium. Manganese compounds have been used as pigments and for the coloring of ceramics and glass. Larger amounts of manganese are used to produce pink colored glass.

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Tellurium

Tellurium is a metalloid which looks similar to tin. It is chemically related to selenium and sulfur. It was discovered in Transylvania in 1782 by Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein in a mineral containing gold and tellurium. Martin Heinrich Klaproth named the new element in 1798 after the Latin word for "earth", tellus. It is primarily used in alloys, foremost in steel and copper to improve machinability. Applications in solar panels and as a semiconductor material also consume a considerable fraction of tellurium production. It is also used to color ceramics. The strong increase in optical refraction upon the addition of selenides and tellurides into glass is used in the production of glass fibers for telecommunications. These chalcogenide glasses are widely used. Rubber can be vulcanized with tellurium instead of sulfur or selenium. The rubber produced in this way shows improved heat resistance.

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Ytterbium

Ytterbium is a rare earth element of the lanthanide series and is found in the minerals gadolinite, monazite, and xenotime. The element is sometimes associated with yttrium or other related elements and is used in certain steels. The 169Yb isotope has been used as a radiation source substitute for a portable X-ray machine when electricity was not available. It can also be used as a dopant to help improve the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. Some ytterbium alloys have rarely been used in dentistry. It is used as dopant in optical materials, usually in the form of ions in active laser media. Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistivity when subjected to high stresses. This property is used in stress gauges to monitor ground deformations from earthquakes and explosions.

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Molybdenum

Molybdenum is a transition metal. The element was discovered in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. The metal was first isolated in 1781 by Peter Jacob Hjelm. Molybdenum readily forms hard, stable carbides, and for this reason it is often used in high-strength steel alloys. Industrially, molybdenum compounds are used in high pressure and high temperature applications, as pigments and catalysts. Molybdenum-containing enzymes are used as catalysts by some bacteria to break the chemical bond in atmospheric molecular nitrogen, allowing biological nitrogen fixation. The ability of molybdenum to withstand extreme temperatures without significantly expanding or softening makes it useful in applications that involve intense heat, including the manufacture of armour, aircraft parts, electrical contacts, industrial motors and filaments.

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Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group. It is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. It is thus an essential element for all living cells, and organisms tend to accumulate and concentrate it. Today, the most important commercial use of phosphorus-based chemicals is the production of fertilizers, to replace the phosphorus that plants remove from the soil. It is widely used to make organophosphorus compounds. It is also an important component in steel production, in the making of phosphor bronze, and in many other related products. Phosphates are utilized in the making of special glasses that are used for sodium lamps.

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ANOLIFE X70

ANOLIFE X70 anodising process is a modification of the conventional sulphuric acid electrolyte. ANOLIFE X70 protects the newly formed anodic coating from the electrolyte during the anodising process, thereby increasing the efficiency of the coating formation. ANOLIFE X70 anodising process avoids the formation of soft oxide or burning whilst allowing anodising to be carried out at a temperature between 25 and 30 degrees Celcius. ANOLIFE X70 is a weak organic acid and metallic salts compound in a white crystalline powder form.

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AnoAdd 4000

AnoAdd 4000 is an anodizing additive designed to be used sulfuric anodizing baths. AnoAdd 4000 reduces time, energy consumption and refrigeration requirements. AnoAdd 4000 produces no yellow coatings.

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