Sweeteners Substitutors sugar with Low Energy, Calories



D-xylose is a sugar first isolated from wood.Xylose is classified as a monosaccharide of the aldopentose type.It is the precursor to hemicellulose, one of the main constituents of biomass.It is also found in berries, spinach, broccoli, and pears.In animal medicine, xylose is used to test for malabsorption.

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Dextrose is a simple sugar and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as the primary source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. It is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration. It is a common medical analyte measured in blood samples. In industry, dextrose is used as a precursor to make vitamin C in the Reichstein process, to make citric acid, gluconic acid, bio-ethanol, polylactic acid, sorbitol.

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Lactitol is a sugar alcohol used as a replacement bulk sweetener for low calorie foods with approximately 40% of the sweetness of sugar. Lactitol is used in a variety of low food energy or low fat foods. High stability makes it popular for baking. It is used in sugar-free candies, cookies, chocolate, and ice cream. It also promotes colon health as a prebiotic. Because of poor absorption, lactitol only has 2.4 Calories per gram, compared to 4 Calories per gram for typical carbohydrates. Lactitol is listed as an "inactive" ingredient in some prescription drugs, such as Adderall.

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Maltitol is a sugar alcohol. It is made by the hydrogenation of maltose. It is used to replace table sugar because it has fewer calories. It is used as a low-calorie sweetening agent,pharmaceutical excipient.

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Mannitol is an organic compound. It is used to induce osmotic stress in plants.Mannitol is used for dehydrant and diuretics in acute oliguric renal failure, re­duce intraocular and intracerebral pressures, enhance urinary excretion of some toxins,used as an irrigating solution during transurethral prostatic resections. It is used as the analytical reagent, and it is also used in the resin and the drugs synthesis.

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Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol that the human body metabolizes slowly. It can be obtained by reduction of glucose, changing the aldehyde group to a hydroxyl group. It is found in apples, pears, peaches, and prunes. It is synthesized by sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and converted to fructose by succinate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase. It is often used in diet foods, mints, cough syrups, and sugar-free chewing gum. It can be used as a non-stimulant laxative via an oral suspension or enema, and like other sugar alcohols with the exception of erythritol, may cause inadvertent GI distress when consuming food products with sorbitol in excess. It works by drawing water into the large intestine, thereby stimulating bowel movements. Sorbitol, combined with kayexalate, helps the body rid itself of excess potassium ions in a hyperkalaemic state. The kayexalate exchanges sodium ions for potassium ions in the bowel, while sorbitol helps to eliminate it. Sorbitol often is used in modern cosmetics as a humectant and thickener. It is used in mouthwash and toothpaste.

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Aspartame is an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages. It is a white, odourless powder, approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar, manufactured by combining phenylalanine and aspartic acid. Its main impurity is diketopiperazine that has no sweetening properties. It is not only used in food but also in pharmaceutical also.


Galactose is a type of sugar that is less sweet than glucose. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it has food energy. It is a C-4 epimer of glucose. It is a polymer of the sugar galactose found in hemicellulose. It can be converted to galactose by hydrolysis.

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Raffinose can be hydrolyzed to D-galactose and sucrose by the enzyme α-galactosidase (α-GAL), an enzyme not found in the human digestive tract. α-GAL also hydrolyzes other α-galactosides such as stachyose, verbascose, and galactinol, if present. The enzyme does not cleave β-linked galactose, as in lactose.

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Saccharin is an artificial sweetener. The basic substance, benzoic sulfilimine, has effectively no food energy and is much sweeter than sucrose, but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations. It is used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, biscuits, medicines, and toothpaste.

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