Ammonia Properties, Molecular Formula, Applications - WorldOfChemicals

Ammonia Properties


Ammonia -Molecule 3D Struture
Molecule 3D Structure Image
Ammonia -Molecule Struture
Molecule Structure Image



Ammonia, or azane, is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building-block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals or is used in many commercial cleaning products. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. Ammonia and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rainwater. Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar System on Pluto, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Ammonia is directly or indirectly the precursor to most nitrogen-containing compounds. Ammonia is also used to make Hydrazine, in the Olin Raschig process, the Ketazine process, and the peroxide process, Hydrogen cyanide, in the BMA process and the Pechiney-Ugine-Kuhlmann process, Hydroxylamine and ammonium carbonate, in the Raschig process, Phenol, in the Raschig-Hooker process, Amino acids. It is also frequently used for cleaning ovens and soaking items to loosen baked-on grime. Ammonia is used to scrub SO2 from the burning of fossil fuels, and the resulting product is converted to ammonium sulfate for use as fertilizer. Ammonia neutralizes the nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutants emitted by diesel engines. Ammonia may be used to mitigate gaseous spills of phosgene. Ammonia has been proposed as a practical alternative to fossil fuel for internal combustion engines. Ammonia, as the vapor released by smelling salts, has found significant use as a respiratory stimulant. Liquid ammonia is used for treatment of cotton materials, giving properties like mercerisation, using alkalis.

Chemical Properties

Appearance Colorless Gas
Basicity 4.75
Boiling Point 33.34 °C
CAS Number 7664-41-7
ChEBI 16134
Density 1.023 g/ml
Dipole Moment 1.42 D
EINECS Number 231-635-3
IUPAC Name Azane
InChI 1S/H3N/h1H3
Main Hazards Contact of the ammonia liquid with skin freezes the tissue, causes a caustic burn
Melting Point 77.73 °C
Molar Mass 17.03 g/mol
Molecular Formula NH3
Molecular Shape Trigonal pyramid
NFPA 704 H-3,F-1,R-0,C-NA
Other_Cations Phosphine;Arsine;Stibine
RTECS Number BO0875000
Related Compounds Ammonium Hydroxide
Solubility Soluble
Synonyms Am-Fol;Ammonia Anhydrous; Hydrogen Nitride; Trihydrogen Nitride; Nitro-Sil