Cadmium Properties, Molecular Formula, Applications - WorldOfChemicals

Cadmium Properties




Cadmium was discovered simultaneously by Stromeyer and Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate. It occurs as a minor component in most zinc ores and therefore is a byproduct of zinc production. It was used for a long time as a pigment and for corrosion resistant plating on steel while cadmium compounds were used to stabilize plastic. With the exception of its use in nickel-cadmium batteries and cadmium telluride solar panels, the use of cadmium is generally decreasing in its other applications. These declines have been due to competing technologies, cadmium’s toxicity in certain forms and concentration and resulting regulations. Cadmium is used as a barrier to control neutrons in nuclear fission. Cadmium oxide is used in black and white television phosphors and in the blue and green phosphors for color television picture tubes. Cadmium sulfide is used as a photoconductive surface coating for photocopier drums. In PVC, cadmium was used as heat, light, and weathering stabilizers. It is used in many kinds of solder and bearing alloys, due to a low coefficient of friction and fatigue resistance. It is also found in some of the lowest-melting alloys, such as Wood's metal. Helium-cadmium lasers are a common source of blue-ultraviolet laser light. They operate at either 325 or 422 nm and are used in fluorescence microscopes and various laboratory experiments. Cadmium is one of six substances banned by the European Union's Restriction on Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, which bans certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment but allows for certain exemptions and exclusions from the scope of the law.

Chemical Properties

Appearance Silvery Bluish-Gray Metallic Solid
Atomic Number 48
Atomic Weight 112.411 g/mol
Block d
Boiling Point 767 °C
CAS Number 7440-43-9
Class 6.1
Crystal Structure Hexagonal
Density 8.65 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-152-8
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 5s2 4d10
Group 12
Ionization Energy 867.8 KJ/mol
Melting Point 321.7 °C
NFPA 704 H-3,F-1,R-0,C-NA
Oxidation State 2,1
PG 1
Period 5
RTECS Number EU9800000
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