Carbon Properties, Molecular Formula, Applications - WorldOfChemicals

Carbon Properties

Carbon

Description

 

Carbon is nonmetallic and tetravalent-making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. The major economic use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil (petroleum). Crude oil is used by the petrochemical industry to produce, amongst others, gasoline and kerosene, through a distillation process, in refineries. Cellulose is a natural, carbon-containing polymer produced by plants in the form of cotton, linen, and hemp. Cellulose is mainly used for maintaining structure in plants. Commercially valuable carbon polymers of animal origin include wool, cashmere and silk. Plastics are made from synthetic carbon polymers, often with oxygen and nitrogen atoms included at regular intervals in the main polymer chain. The raw materials for many of these synthetic substances come from crude oil. It can form alloys with iron, of which the most common is carbon steel. Graphite is combined with clays to form the 'lead' used in pencils used for writing and drawing. It is also used as a lubricant and a pigment, as a molding material in glass manufacture, in electrodes for dry batteries and in electroplating and electroforming, in brushes for electric motors and as a neutron moderator in nuclear reactors. Gem quality diamond is used in jewelry, and Industrial diamonds are used in drilling, cutting and polishing tools for machining metals and stone. Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink, artist's oil paint and water colours, carbon paper, automotive finishes, India ink and laser printer toner. It is also used as a filler in rubber products such as tyres and in plastic compounds. Carbon acts as a macronutrient for the body, and is thus greatly required.

Chemical Properties

Appearance Grey solid
Atomic Number 6
Atomic Weight 12.0107 g/mol
Block p
CAS Number 7440-44-0
Class NA
Density 1.8-2.1g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-153-3
Electron Configuration 1s22s22p2
Group 14
Ionization Energy 1086.5 kJ/mol
NFPA 704 H-1,F-1,R-0,C-NA
Oxidation State 4,3,2,1,0,-1,-2,-3,-4
PG NA
Period 2
Symbol C
Synonyms Black Pearls;Charcoal Black;Graphite Nautural;Purified Charcoal;Activated Carbon;Black Diamond