Germanium Properties, Molecular Formula, Applications - WorldOfChemicals

Germanium Properties




Germanium was discovered comparatively late because very few minerals contain it in high concentration. It ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties based on its position on his periodic table and called the element eka-silicon. Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found it in the mineral argyrodite. It is an important semiconductor material used in transistors and various other electronic devices. Its major end uses are fiber-optic systems and infrared optics, but it is also used for polymerization catalysts, and in electronics and solar cell applications. It is finding a new use in nanowires. Germanium has gained popularity in recent years for its reputed ability to improve immune system function in cancer patients. It is available in the U.S. as a nonprescription dietary supplement in oral capsules or tablets, and has also been encountered as an injectable solution.

Chemical Properties

Appearance Grayish White Solid
Atomic Number 32
Atomic Weight 72.64 g/mol
Block p
Boiling Point 2833 °C
CAS Number 7440-56-4
Class 8
Crystal Structure Diamond Cubic
Density 5.323 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-164-3
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Group 14
Ionization Energy 762 kJ/mol
Melting Point 938.25 °C
Oxidation State 4,3,2,1,0,-1,-2,-3,-4
PG 3
Period 4
RTECS Number LY5200000
Symbol Ge