Tin Properties, Molecular Formula, Applications - WorldOfChemicals

Tin Properties




Tin is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, where it occurs as tin dioxide. It is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion. It has long been used as a solder in the form of an alloy with lead. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel. Because of its low toxicity, tin-plated metal is also used for food packaging, giving the name to tin cans, which are made mostly of steel. Tin in combination with other elements forms a wide variety of useful alloys. It is most commonly alloyed with copper. Window glass is most often made via floating molten glass on top of molten tin in order to make a flat surface. Tin(II) fluoride is added to some dental care products as stannous fluoride. Of all the chemical compounds of tin, the organotin compounds are most heavily used. The major commercial application of organotin compounds is in the stabilization of PVC plastics. Organotin compounds can have a relatively high toxicity, which is both advantageous and problematic. They have been used for their biocidal effects in fungicides, pesticides, algaecides, wood preservatives, and antifouling agents. Some tin reagents are useful in organic chemistry. In the largest application, stannous chloride is a common reducing agent for the conversion of nitro and oxime groups to amines.

Chemical Properties

Appearance Silvery or Grey solid
Atomic Number 50
Atomic Weight 118.71 g/mol
Block p
Boiling Point 2602 °C
CAS Number 7440-31-5
Class 4.1
Crystal Structure Tetragonal or Diamond Cubic
Density 7.365 g/cm3
EINECS Number 231-141-8
Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p2
Group 14
Ionization Energy 708.6 KJ/mol
Melting Point 231.93 °C
NFPA 704 H-1,F-1,R-0,C-NA
Oxidation State 4,2,-4
PG 3
Period 5
RTECS Number XP7320000
Symbol Sn