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Ferrous sulphate (CAS Number: 7720-78-7) is an inorganic salt with the chemical formula FeSO4. Ferrous sulphate suppliers sell it as ferrous sulfate as well. The other names of the salt are melanterite, szomolnokite, copperas, iron vitriol and green vitriol. Anhydrous salt (FeSO4) is in the form of white crystals, monohydrate (FeSO4.H2O) as white-yellow crystals and heptahydrate (FeSO4.7H2O) as blue green crystals. Ferrous sulfate dissolves in water to form an aquo complex, which is paramagnetic and has octahedral molecular geometry. The density of the salt is 1.898 g/ml, which has a melting point of 680ºC and decomposition point of 300ºC.



Ferrous sulphate is primarily found as heptahydrate salt (FeSO4.7H2O) in nature. Other hydrated salts constituting some minerals are also found in nature.   



Ferrous sulphate manufacturers prepare anhydrous ferrous sulfate from the reaction between sulfuric acid and elemental iron, to obtain ferrous sulphate. This is achieved before coating or plating of steel during finishing, where steel rod or sheet is passed through sulfuric acid baths.

Fe + H2SO4 → FeSO4 + H2

Ferrous sulphate manufacturers source it through oxidation of pyrite (ferrous disulfide).

2 FeS2 + 2 H2O + 7 O2 → 2 FeSO4 + 2 H2SO4

Ferrous sulphate suppliers source it in large quantities through the production of titanium dioxide from ilmenite by the sulfate process.



  • Ferrous sulphate manufacturers sell the salt for the manufacture of medicines and iron supplements, which are used to treat anemia.
  • Ink and fabric manufacturers buy ferrous sulphate for use their manufacturing processes. Indigo dyes are obtained using ferrous sulfate.
  • The inorganic salt is used for the purification of wastes through flocculation.
  • Agricultural industries buy ferrous sulphate to use it as a soil amendment, which lowers the pH of a high alkaline soil such that soil nutrients can reach the plants.
  • Ferrous sulphate suppliers sell it to gold refiners, where it is used to precipitate gold dissolved in aqua regia solution.



Ferrous sulphate can irritate the respiratory tract. Although, the inorganic salt has a low toxicity; its concentrated form is lethal that can damage the blood vessels and cause diarrhea or even death. Ingestion of iron supplements in excess amounts could cause iron poisoning that could result in circulatory collapse, renal failure, metabolic acidosis and hepatic failure. Ferrous sulphate suppliers, intermediate industries and end users must be aware of the salt’s toxicity.


Handling and Storage

Intermediate industries and end users that buy ferrous sulphate must store the salt containers in a cool place with proper ventilation. The personnel handling the chemical compound should wear protective clothing, gloves and safety glasses. The product must not be used if it the coating is brownish yellow basic sulphate. Safety shower and eye wash facilities must be provided by ferrous sulphate manufacturers. Engineering controls like local exhaust ventilation are needed, when handling the product to avoid overexposure.


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