New routes self-assemble 3-D shapes

New routes to self-assemble 3-D shapes

2:45 AM, 12th December 2011
New routes to self-assemble 3-D shapes
2-D nets for 3-D shapes A few of the 2.3 million possible 2-D designs — planar nets — for a truncated octahedron (right column). The question is: Which net is best to make a self-assembling shape at the nanoscale? Credit: Shivendra Pandey/Gracias Lab, Johns Hopkins University

 

RHODE ISLAND, US: Material chemists and engineers would love to figure out how to create self-assembling shells, containers or structures that could be used as tiny drug-carrying containers or to build 3-D sensors and electronic devices.

There have been some successes with simple 3-D shapes such as cubes, but the list of possible starting points that could yield the ideal self-assembly for more complex geometric configurations gets long fast. For example, while there are 11 2-D arrangements for a cube, there are 43,380 for a dodecahedron. Creating a truncated octahedron has 2.3 million possibilities.

“The issue is that one runs into a combinatorial explosion,” said Govind Menon, associate professor of applied mathematics, Brown University. “How do we search efficiently for the best solution within such a large dataset? This is where math can contribute to the problem.”

In a paper published in the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, researchers from Brown and Johns Hopkins University determined the best 2-D arrangements, called planar nets, to create self-folding polyhedra with dimensions of a few hundred microns, the size of a small dust particle. The team at Brown devised algorithms to cut through the myriad possibilities and identify the best planar nets to yield the self-folding 3-D structures. Researchers at Johns Hopkins then confirmed the nets’ design principles with experiments.

“Using a combination of theory and experiments, we uncovered design principles for optimum nets which self-assemble with high yields,” said David Gracias, associate professor, chemical and bimolecular engineering, Johns Hopkins. “In doing so, we uncovered striking geometric analogies between natural assembly of proteins and viruses and these polyhedra, which could provide insight into naturally occurring self-assembling processes and is a step toward the development of self-assembly as a viable manufacturing paradigm.”

“This is about creating basic tools in nanotechnology,” said Menon. “It’s important to explore what shapes you can build. The bigger your toolbox, the better off you are.”              

Menon, with the help of Brown undergraduate students Margaret Ewing and Andrew “Drew” Kunas, sought to winnow the possibilities.

Gracias and colleagues at Johns Hopkins, who have been working with self-assembling structures for years, tested the configurations from the Brown researchers. The nets are nickel plates with hinges that have been soldered together in various 2-D arrangements. Using the options presented by the Brown researchers, the Johns Hopkins’s group heated the nets to around 360 degrees Fahrenheit, the point at which surface tension between the solder and the nickel plate causes the hinges to fold upward, rotate and eventually form a polyhedron. “Quite remarkably, just on heating, these planar nets fold up and seal themselves into these complex 3-D geometries with specific fold angles,” Gracias said.

“What’s amazing is we have no control over the sequence of folds, but it still works,” Menon added.

 

© Brown University News

 

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