Salt-loving microbe provides new enzymes biofuel production

Salt-loving microbe provides new enzymes for biofuel production

4:38 PM, 1st July 2011
Salt-loving microbe provides new enzymes for biofuel production
Tao Zhang (left) and Eddy Rubin (right).

WALNUT CREEK, US: In order to realize the full potential of advanced biofuels that are derived from non-food sources of lignocellulosic biomass - eg, agricultural, forestry and municipal waste, and crops such as poplar, switchgrass and miscanthus - new technologies that can efficiently and cost-effectively break down this biomass into simple sugars are required. Existing biomass pre-treatment technologies are typically derived from the pulp and paper industry and rely on dilute acids and bases to break down the biomass. The treated biomass product is then exposed to biological catalysts, or enzymes, to liberate the sugars.

A new class of solvents, referred to as ionic liquids, have been reported to be much more efficient in treating the biomass and enhancing the yield of sugars liberated from it. While ionic liquids are useful for breaking down biomass, they can also hinder the ability of the cellulases (usually derived from fungi) used to produce sugars after pre-treatment. To help identify new enzymes that are tolerant of ionic liquids, researchers from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) at DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are turning to those found in the complete genome sequences of halophilic (salt-tolerant) organisms.

As a test of this bioenergy-related application of DNA sequencing and enzyme discovery, researchers led by the Director of the DOE JGI, Eddy Rubin and the Vice-President of the JBEI Deconstruction Division, Blake Simmons, employed a cellulose-degrading enzyme from a salt-tolerant microbe that was isolated from the Great Salt Lake.

“This is one of the only reports of salt-tolerant cellulases and the only one that represents a true ‘genome-to-function’ relevant to ionic liquids from a halophilic environment,” said Simmons of the study first published online June 30, 2011 in Green Chemistry. “This strategy enhances the possibility of identifying true obligatory halophilic enzymes.” Such salt-tolerant enzymes, particularly cellulases, offer significant advantages for industrial utility over conventional enzymes.

In collaboration with Jerry Eichler from Ben Gurion University in Israel they cloned and expressed a gene from H. utahensis in another haloarchaeal microbe, and were able to identify a salt-dependent enzyme that can tolerate high temperatures and is resistant to ionic liquids. “This project has established a very important link between genomic science and the realization of enzymes that can handle very demanding chemical environments, such as those present in a biorefinery,” said Simmons.

The group plans to expand this research to develop a full complement of enzymes that is tailored for the ionic liquid process technology, one they hope can enable the commercial viability of advanced biofuels.

Other contributors to the project include Tao Zhang, Natalia Ivanova, Seth Axen, Cheryl Kerfeld, Feng Chen, Nikos Kyrpides, Jan-Fang Cheng of the DOE JGI along with Philip Hugenholtz now with The University of Queensland, and Supratim Datta and Kenneth Sale of JBEI.

© US Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute News





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