Scientists figure out how transform CO2 into rock

Scientists figure out how to transform CO2 into rock

9:28 AM, 10th June 2016
Scientists figure out how to transform CO2 into rock
Air photograph of Reykjavik Energy’s Hellisheidi geothermal power plant.

SOUTHAMPTON, UK: An international team of scientists have found a potentially viable way to remove anthropogenic (caused or influenced by humans) carbon dioxide emissions from the atmosphere to turn it into rock.

The study is published in the journal Science, has shown for the first time that the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) can be permanently and rapidly locked away from the atmosphere, by injecting it into volcanic bedrock. The CO2 reacts with the surrounding rock, forming environmentally benign minerals.

Measures to tackle the problem of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and resultant climate change are numerous. One approach is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), where CO2 is physically removed from the atmosphere and trapped underground. Geoengineers have long explored the possibility of sealing CO2 gas in voids underground, such as in abandoned oil and gas reservoirs, but these are susceptible to leakage. So attention has now turned to the mineralisation of carbon to permanently dispose of CO2.

Until now it was thought that this process would take several hundreds - thousands of years and is therefore not a practical option. But the current study – led by University of Southampton, Columbia University, University of Iceland, University of Toulouse and Reykjavik Energy – has demonstrated that it can take as little as two years.

Lead author Dr Juerg Matter, associate professor in Geoengineering at the University of Southampton, said: “Our results show that between 95 and 98 percent of the injected CO2 was mineralised over the period of less than two years, which is amazingly fast.”

The gas was injected into a deep well at the study site in Iceland. As a volcanic island, Iceland is made up of 90 percent basalt, a rock rich in elements such as calcium, magnesium and iron that are required for carbon mineralisation. The CO2 is dissolved in water and carried down the well. On contact with the target storage rocks, at 400-800 metres under the ground, the solution quickly reacts with the surrounding basaltic rock, forming carbonate minerals.

“Carbonate minerals do not leak out of the ground, thus our newly developed method results in permanent and environmentally friendly storage of CO2 emissions,” said Dr Matter, who is also a member of the University’s Southampton Marine and Maritime Institute and Adjunct Senior Scientist at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Columbia University. “On the other hand, basalt is one of the most common rock types on Earth, potentially providing one of the largest CO2 storage capacities.”

To monitor what was happening underground, the team also injected ‘tracers’, chemical compounds that literally trace the transport path and reactivity of the CO2. There were eight monitoring wells at the study site, where they could test how the chemical composition of the water had changed. The researchers discovered that by the time the groundwater had migrated to the monitoring wells, the concentration of the tracers – and therefore the CO2 – had diminished, indicating that mineralisation had occurred.

“Storing CO2 as carbonate minerals significantly enhances storage security which should improve public acceptance of Carbon Capture and Storage as a climate change mitigation technology,” said Dr Matter. “The overall scale of our study was relatively small. So, the obvious next step for CarbFix is to upscale CO2 storage in basalt. This is currently happening at Reykjavik Energy’s Hellisheidi geothermal power plant, where up to 5,000 tonnes of CO2 per year are captured and stored in a basaltic reservoir.”

The investigation is part of the CarbFix project, a European Commission and US Department of Energy funded programme to develop ways to store anthropogenic CO2 in basaltic rocks through field, laboratory and modelling studies.

© University of Southampton

0 Comments

Login

Your Comments (Up to 2000 characters)
Please respect our community and the integrity of its participants. WOC reserves the right to moderate and approve your comment.

Related News


New names for elements 113, 115, 117 and 118

ZURICH, SWITZERLAND: The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has proposed names for the elements with atomic number 113, 115, 11 ...

Read more
Covestro launches first rotor blade made of polyurethane

LEVERKUSEN, GERMANY: Covestro AG has launched the first polyurethane rotor blade for wind turbines in Asia. The 37.5 meter-long rotor blade, which is ...

Read more
Axalta opens new European tech centre in Germany

WUPPERTAL, GERMANY: Axalta Coating Systems (AXTA) has officially opened its newly expanded European technology centre (ETC) in Wuppertal, Germany. The ...

Read more
AkzoNobel aims to create affordable clean energy and ‘green’ jobs

AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS: AkzoNobel NV is supporting the Dutch government's plan to join the Mission Innovation coalition. The global initiative aims to ...

Read more
BASF to speed up process, advanced materials, bioscience research

LUDWIGSHAFEN, GERMANY: BASF SE said that it is further speeding up and focusing on its research and development (innovative) activities, to maintain i ...

Read more
Akzonobel to use wine corks constituent expancel; FDA approves

AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has officially approved AkzoNobel’s expancel microspheres – which are us ...

Read more
www.worldofchemicals.com uses cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By using this site, you agree to our Privacy Policy and our Terms of Use. X